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Resurgence of mumps in Korea.

Park SH - Infect Chemother (2015)

Bottom Line: The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures.Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era.Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Routine vaccination against mumps has markedly reduced its incidence. However, the incidence of mumps continuously has increased since 2007. In 2013, a large mumps epidemic occurred in Korea, and this epidemic is still an ongoing problem. This epidemic occurred primarily in school settings and affected vaccinated adolescents, predominantly male students. The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures. Containment of mumps outbreaks is challenging because the sensitivity of diagnostic tests is low among vaccinees and control measures are less efficient because of the inherent nature of the mumps virus. Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era. In order to control the current mumps epidemic and prevent further outbreaks, we need to better understand the dynamics of mumps among vaccinated populations and the changing epidemiology in Korea. Concerted efforts should be made to systematically monitor the immunization status of the Korean population and to improve diagnosis efficiency. Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of reported mumps cases and the annual incidence of mumps in Korea since 1955, and the mumps vaccine strains used in Korea.MMR, measles-mumps-rubella; MR, measles-rubella; NIP, National Immunization Program; mo, months; yr, years.
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Figure 1: Number of reported mumps cases and the annual incidence of mumps in Korea since 1955, and the mumps vaccine strains used in Korea.MMR, measles-mumps-rubella; MR, measles-rubella; NIP, National Immunization Program; mo, months; yr, years.

Mentions: Mumps vaccine was first introduced in Korea in 1980 and was included in the National Immunization Program as the combined MMR vaccine in 1985. A two-dose MMR vaccination at 12-15 months and at 4-6 years of age was recommended in 1997, and became mandatory for school entrance in 2001[2]. As a result, a two-dose MMR vaccine uptake reached up to more than 95% among preschool children in Korea [3]. However, the incidence of mumps has steadily increased since 2007 and sharply rose in 2013 (Fig. 1) [4]. The number of mumps cases continues to rise in an unprecedented scale. In order to identify the causes of mumps epidemic in Korea, new insights into the changing epidemiology of mumps following vaccination are needed.


Resurgence of mumps in Korea.

Park SH - Infect Chemother (2015)

Number of reported mumps cases and the annual incidence of mumps in Korea since 1955, and the mumps vaccine strains used in Korea.MMR, measles-mumps-rubella; MR, measles-rubella; NIP, National Immunization Program; mo, months; yr, years.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384450&req=5

Figure 1: Number of reported mumps cases and the annual incidence of mumps in Korea since 1955, and the mumps vaccine strains used in Korea.MMR, measles-mumps-rubella; MR, measles-rubella; NIP, National Immunization Program; mo, months; yr, years.
Mentions: Mumps vaccine was first introduced in Korea in 1980 and was included in the National Immunization Program as the combined MMR vaccine in 1985. A two-dose MMR vaccination at 12-15 months and at 4-6 years of age was recommended in 1997, and became mandatory for school entrance in 2001[2]. As a result, a two-dose MMR vaccine uptake reached up to more than 95% among preschool children in Korea [3]. However, the incidence of mumps has steadily increased since 2007 and sharply rose in 2013 (Fig. 1) [4]. The number of mumps cases continues to rise in an unprecedented scale. In order to identify the causes of mumps epidemic in Korea, new insights into the changing epidemiology of mumps following vaccination are needed.

Bottom Line: The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures.Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era.Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Routine vaccination against mumps has markedly reduced its incidence. However, the incidence of mumps continuously has increased since 2007. In 2013, a large mumps epidemic occurred in Korea, and this epidemic is still an ongoing problem. This epidemic occurred primarily in school settings and affected vaccinated adolescents, predominantly male students. The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures. Containment of mumps outbreaks is challenging because the sensitivity of diagnostic tests is low among vaccinees and control measures are less efficient because of the inherent nature of the mumps virus. Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era. In order to control the current mumps epidemic and prevent further outbreaks, we need to better understand the dynamics of mumps among vaccinated populations and the changing epidemiology in Korea. Concerted efforts should be made to systematically monitor the immunization status of the Korean population and to improve diagnosis efficiency. Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus