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The role of autophagy induced by tumor microenvironment in different cells and stages of cancer.

Yang X, Yu DD, Yan F, Jing YY, Han ZP, Sun K, Liang L, Hou J, Wei LX - Cell Biosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Development of a tumor is a very complex process, and invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors are hallmarks and are difficult problems to overcome.Autophagy has dual roles in tumor growth.In this review, we discussed the interaction between autophagy and the tumor microenvironment and the paradoxical roles of autophagy on tumor growth at different stages of tumor development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tumor Immunology and Gene Therapy Center, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, 225 Changhai Road, 200438 Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
Development of a tumor is a very complex process, and invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors are hallmarks and are difficult problems to overcome. The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in controlling tumor fate and autophagy induced by the tumor microenvironment is attracting more and more attention. Autophagy can be induced by several stressors in the tumor microenvironment and autophagy modifies the tumor microenvironment, too. Autophagy has dual roles in tumor growth. In this review, we discussed the interaction between autophagy and the tumor microenvironment and the paradoxical roles of autophagy on tumor growth at different stages of tumor development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Process of autophagy. Autophagy includes five phases: initiation, elongation and autophagosome formation, fusion, and autolysosome formation. Macromolecules are targeted to double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes and then autolysosomes form by fusion with lysosomes. Autophagy is initiated by the ULK1 complex containing ULK, Atg13, FIP200, and Atg101. Autophagosome elongation and maturation involves two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, such as the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and the Atg12 systems. The autophagosome fuses with a lysosome to form an autolysosome, which degrades macromolecules into amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides.
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Fig1: Process of autophagy. Autophagy includes five phases: initiation, elongation and autophagosome formation, fusion, and autolysosome formation. Macromolecules are targeted to double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes and then autolysosomes form by fusion with lysosomes. Autophagy is initiated by the ULK1 complex containing ULK, Atg13, FIP200, and Atg101. Autophagosome elongation and maturation involves two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, such as the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and the Atg12 systems. The autophagosome fuses with a lysosome to form an autolysosome, which degrades macromolecules into amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides.

Mentions: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic pathway from yeast to mammals that serves as a major lysosomal degradation pathway for recycling intracellular components. Autophagy is emerging as the key process that eliminates damaged macromolecules, including proteins, lipids, and dysfunctional organelles. Autophagy is a complex process comprising many steps (FigureĀ 1), including initiation, elongation, and autophagosome and autolysosome formation. Macromolecules are targeted to double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, and autolysosomes form by fusion with lysosomes [9]. Cytoplasmic constituents are degraded and digested by lysosomal enzymes in the autolysosome for recycling and reuse. The products of degradation, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides, are essential for cell growth. The multi-step autophagic process is regulated by a limited number of highly conserved genes known as autophagy-related genes (ATGs) [10].Figure 1


The role of autophagy induced by tumor microenvironment in different cells and stages of cancer.

Yang X, Yu DD, Yan F, Jing YY, Han ZP, Sun K, Liang L, Hou J, Wei LX - Cell Biosci (2015)

Process of autophagy. Autophagy includes five phases: initiation, elongation and autophagosome formation, fusion, and autolysosome formation. Macromolecules are targeted to double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes and then autolysosomes form by fusion with lysosomes. Autophagy is initiated by the ULK1 complex containing ULK, Atg13, FIP200, and Atg101. Autophagosome elongation and maturation involves two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, such as the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and the Atg12 systems. The autophagosome fuses with a lysosome to form an autolysosome, which degrades macromolecules into amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384293&req=5

Fig1: Process of autophagy. Autophagy includes five phases: initiation, elongation and autophagosome formation, fusion, and autolysosome formation. Macromolecules are targeted to double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes and then autolysosomes form by fusion with lysosomes. Autophagy is initiated by the ULK1 complex containing ULK, Atg13, FIP200, and Atg101. Autophagosome elongation and maturation involves two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, such as the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and the Atg12 systems. The autophagosome fuses with a lysosome to form an autolysosome, which degrades macromolecules into amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides.
Mentions: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic pathway from yeast to mammals that serves as a major lysosomal degradation pathway for recycling intracellular components. Autophagy is emerging as the key process that eliminates damaged macromolecules, including proteins, lipids, and dysfunctional organelles. Autophagy is a complex process comprising many steps (FigureĀ 1), including initiation, elongation, and autophagosome and autolysosome formation. Macromolecules are targeted to double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, and autolysosomes form by fusion with lysosomes [9]. Cytoplasmic constituents are degraded and digested by lysosomal enzymes in the autolysosome for recycling and reuse. The products of degradation, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides, are essential for cell growth. The multi-step autophagic process is regulated by a limited number of highly conserved genes known as autophagy-related genes (ATGs) [10].Figure 1

Bottom Line: Development of a tumor is a very complex process, and invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors are hallmarks and are difficult problems to overcome.Autophagy has dual roles in tumor growth.In this review, we discussed the interaction between autophagy and the tumor microenvironment and the paradoxical roles of autophagy on tumor growth at different stages of tumor development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tumor Immunology and Gene Therapy Center, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, 225 Changhai Road, 200438 Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
Development of a tumor is a very complex process, and invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors are hallmarks and are difficult problems to overcome. The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in controlling tumor fate and autophagy induced by the tumor microenvironment is attracting more and more attention. Autophagy can be induced by several stressors in the tumor microenvironment and autophagy modifies the tumor microenvironment, too. Autophagy has dual roles in tumor growth. In this review, we discussed the interaction between autophagy and the tumor microenvironment and the paradoxical roles of autophagy on tumor growth at different stages of tumor development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus