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Fabrication and characterization of polysaccharide ion gels with ionic liquids and their further conversion into value-added sustainable materials.

Takada A, Kadokawa J - Biomolecules (2015)

Bottom Line: The resulting ion gels have been characterized by suitable analytical measurements.Characterization of a pregel state by viscoelastic measurement provided the molecular weight information.Furthermore, the polysaccharide ion gels have been converted into value-added sustainable materials by appropriate procedures, such as exchange with other disperse media and regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga Koen 6-1, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8581, Japan. takada@mm.kyushu-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
A review of the fabrication of polysaccharide ion gels with ionic liquids is presented. From various polysaccharides, the corresponding ion gels were fabricated through the dissolution with ionic liquids. As ionic liquids, in the most cases, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride has been used, whereas 1-allyl-3methylimidazolium acetate was specifically used for chitin. The resulting ion gels have been characterized by suitable analytical measurements. Characterization of a pregel state by viscoelastic measurement provided the molecular weight information. Furthermore, the polysaccharide ion gels have been converted into value-added sustainable materials by appropriate procedures, such as exchange with other disperse media and regeneration.

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Structures of hydrocolloid polysaccharides, which are used in the fabrication of ion gels.
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biomolecules-05-00244-f002: Structures of hydrocolloid polysaccharides, which are used in the fabrication of ion gels.

Mentions: Polysaccharides are widely distributed in nature and act as important in vivo substrates, such as structural material and energy provider [1]. They are also regarded as representative biomass resources and are used as the components in functional bio-based materials because of their eco-friendly and biodegradable properties [2,3]. Cellulose, starch, and chitin are the most abundant natural polysaccharides, which are found in plants, insects, microorganisms, and so on [4,5,6,7,8]. Cellulose and chitin act as structural materials present in the cell walls of plants and the exoskeletons of crustaceans, shellfishes, and insects, respectively. Accordingly, cellulose and chitin have similar structures, in which the former is composed of β-(1→4)-linked d-glucose residues and the latter is an aminopolysaccharide consisting of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine units linked through β-(1→4)-glycosidic linkages (Figure 1). Starch consists of amylose and amylopectin and both of which are glucose polymers [8]. Amylose is s linear polysaccharide composed of α-(1→4)-linked d-glucose residues and amylopectin has a branched structure of such α-(1→4)-linked glucose chains interlinked through α-(1→6)-glycosidic bonds (Figure 1). Because of the opposite stereofashion of starch from cellulose, the role of the former is completely different from the latter, which is an energy resource. Besides such abundant polysaccharides, there are a number of polysaccharides in nature, which have specific structures composed of one or multiple kinds of monosaccharide residues [1]. Furthermore, such polysaccharides sometimes consist of complicated branched or grafted structures with the different kinds of saccharide chains. Because the polysaccharides form highly viscous aqueous solutions, they have been used as hydrocolloids for a stabilizer, a viscous agent, and a structure provider in food industries (Figure 2) [9]. Polysaccharides often show a lack of solubility and processability because of numerous intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds among hydroxy groups in saccharide residues.


Fabrication and characterization of polysaccharide ion gels with ionic liquids and their further conversion into value-added sustainable materials.

Takada A, Kadokawa J - Biomolecules (2015)

Structures of hydrocolloid polysaccharides, which are used in the fabrication of ion gels.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384121&req=5

biomolecules-05-00244-f002: Structures of hydrocolloid polysaccharides, which are used in the fabrication of ion gels.
Mentions: Polysaccharides are widely distributed in nature and act as important in vivo substrates, such as structural material and energy provider [1]. They are also regarded as representative biomass resources and are used as the components in functional bio-based materials because of their eco-friendly and biodegradable properties [2,3]. Cellulose, starch, and chitin are the most abundant natural polysaccharides, which are found in plants, insects, microorganisms, and so on [4,5,6,7,8]. Cellulose and chitin act as structural materials present in the cell walls of plants and the exoskeletons of crustaceans, shellfishes, and insects, respectively. Accordingly, cellulose and chitin have similar structures, in which the former is composed of β-(1→4)-linked d-glucose residues and the latter is an aminopolysaccharide consisting of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine units linked through β-(1→4)-glycosidic linkages (Figure 1). Starch consists of amylose and amylopectin and both of which are glucose polymers [8]. Amylose is s linear polysaccharide composed of α-(1→4)-linked d-glucose residues and amylopectin has a branched structure of such α-(1→4)-linked glucose chains interlinked through α-(1→6)-glycosidic bonds (Figure 1). Because of the opposite stereofashion of starch from cellulose, the role of the former is completely different from the latter, which is an energy resource. Besides such abundant polysaccharides, there are a number of polysaccharides in nature, which have specific structures composed of one or multiple kinds of monosaccharide residues [1]. Furthermore, such polysaccharides sometimes consist of complicated branched or grafted structures with the different kinds of saccharide chains. Because the polysaccharides form highly viscous aqueous solutions, they have been used as hydrocolloids for a stabilizer, a viscous agent, and a structure provider in food industries (Figure 2) [9]. Polysaccharides often show a lack of solubility and processability because of numerous intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds among hydroxy groups in saccharide residues.

Bottom Line: The resulting ion gels have been characterized by suitable analytical measurements.Characterization of a pregel state by viscoelastic measurement provided the molecular weight information.Furthermore, the polysaccharide ion gels have been converted into value-added sustainable materials by appropriate procedures, such as exchange with other disperse media and regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga Koen 6-1, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8581, Japan. takada@mm.kyushu-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
A review of the fabrication of polysaccharide ion gels with ionic liquids is presented. From various polysaccharides, the corresponding ion gels were fabricated through the dissolution with ionic liquids. As ionic liquids, in the most cases, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride has been used, whereas 1-allyl-3methylimidazolium acetate was specifically used for chitin. The resulting ion gels have been characterized by suitable analytical measurements. Characterization of a pregel state by viscoelastic measurement provided the molecular weight information. Furthermore, the polysaccharide ion gels have been converted into value-added sustainable materials by appropriate procedures, such as exchange with other disperse media and regeneration.

Show MeSH