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Chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives for wound healing: old and new materials.

Azuma K, Izumi R, Osaki T, Ifuku S, Morimoto M, Saimoto H, Minami S, Okamoto Y - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized.Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described.Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. kazu-azuma@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described. The evidence indicates that chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are beneficial for the wound healing process. More recently, it is also indicate that some nano-based materials from chitin and chitosan are beneficial than chitin and chitosan for wound healing. Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of chitin-NF on histological changes in a 3D skin culture model. The number of layers and granule density were assessed in the granular layer (GL). Intercellular gaps and nucleus clarity were assessed in the spinosum layer (SL). Characteristic observations included large intercellular gaps in the NON group, low granule density in the DW group, and high granule density in the chitin nanocrystal (NC) (pH 6) and chitin-NF (NF) (pH 6) group. (Bar = 100 μm). Copyright 2014 Elsevier [102].
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jfb-06-00104-f005: The effect of chitin-NF on histological changes in a 3D skin culture model. The number of layers and granule density were assessed in the granular layer (GL). Intercellular gaps and nucleus clarity were assessed in the spinosum layer (SL). Characteristic observations included large intercellular gaps in the NON group, low granule density in the DW group, and high granule density in the chitin nanocrystal (NC) (pH 6) and chitin-NF (NF) (pH 6) group. (Bar = 100 μm). Copyright 2014 Elsevier [102].

Mentions: Ito et al. verified the effect of chitin nanofibrils and nanocrystals on skin using a 3D skin culture model and Franz cells [102]. In the experiment using a 3D culture model, histological images for the non-treatment, diluted water, chitin nanocrystal (pH 6), and chitin-NF (pH 6) groups at 24 h post-application are shown in Figure 5. The observations include large intercellular gaps in the non-treatment group, low granule density in the diluted water group, and high granule density in the chitin nanocrystal (pH 6) and chitin-NF (pH 6) groups. For both interleukin (IL)-1β and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), the cytokine production increased in the following order: chitin-NF < chitin nanocrystals < diluted water < acetic acid. The TGF-β levels differed significantly between the chitin-NF and acetic acid groups and the chitin nanocrystal and acetic acid groups (Figure 6). These results indicate that the application of nanofibrils and nanocrystals to skin improved the epithelial granular layer and increased granular density. Furthermore, application of nanofibrils and nanocrystals to the skin resulted in a lower production of TGF-β compared to that of the control group. Thus, chitin-NF and nanocrystals might have protective effects on skin.


Chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives for wound healing: old and new materials.

Azuma K, Izumi R, Osaki T, Ifuku S, Morimoto M, Saimoto H, Minami S, Okamoto Y - J Funct Biomater (2015)

The effect of chitin-NF on histological changes in a 3D skin culture model. The number of layers and granule density were assessed in the granular layer (GL). Intercellular gaps and nucleus clarity were assessed in the spinosum layer (SL). Characteristic observations included large intercellular gaps in the NON group, low granule density in the DW group, and high granule density in the chitin nanocrystal (NC) (pH 6) and chitin-NF (NF) (pH 6) group. (Bar = 100 μm). Copyright 2014 Elsevier [102].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384104&req=5

jfb-06-00104-f005: The effect of chitin-NF on histological changes in a 3D skin culture model. The number of layers and granule density were assessed in the granular layer (GL). Intercellular gaps and nucleus clarity were assessed in the spinosum layer (SL). Characteristic observations included large intercellular gaps in the NON group, low granule density in the DW group, and high granule density in the chitin nanocrystal (NC) (pH 6) and chitin-NF (NF) (pH 6) group. (Bar = 100 μm). Copyright 2014 Elsevier [102].
Mentions: Ito et al. verified the effect of chitin nanofibrils and nanocrystals on skin using a 3D skin culture model and Franz cells [102]. In the experiment using a 3D culture model, histological images for the non-treatment, diluted water, chitin nanocrystal (pH 6), and chitin-NF (pH 6) groups at 24 h post-application are shown in Figure 5. The observations include large intercellular gaps in the non-treatment group, low granule density in the diluted water group, and high granule density in the chitin nanocrystal (pH 6) and chitin-NF (pH 6) groups. For both interleukin (IL)-1β and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), the cytokine production increased in the following order: chitin-NF < chitin nanocrystals < diluted water < acetic acid. The TGF-β levels differed significantly between the chitin-NF and acetic acid groups and the chitin nanocrystal and acetic acid groups (Figure 6). These results indicate that the application of nanofibrils and nanocrystals to skin improved the epithelial granular layer and increased granular density. Furthermore, application of nanofibrils and nanocrystals to the skin resulted in a lower production of TGF-β compared to that of the control group. Thus, chitin-NF and nanocrystals might have protective effects on skin.

Bottom Line: In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized.Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described.Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. kazu-azuma@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described. The evidence indicates that chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are beneficial for the wound healing process. More recently, it is also indicate that some nano-based materials from chitin and chitosan are beneficial than chitin and chitosan for wound healing. Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus