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Chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives for wound healing: old and new materials.

Azuma K, Izumi R, Osaki T, Ifuku S, Morimoto M, Saimoto H, Minami S, Okamoto Y - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized.Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described.Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. kazu-azuma@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described. The evidence indicates that chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are beneficial for the wound healing process. More recently, it is also indicate that some nano-based materials from chitin and chitosan are beneficial than chitin and chitosan for wound healing. Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chitin nanofiber.
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jfb-06-00104-f002: Chitin nanofiber.

Mentions: Nanofibers are fibers of less than 100 nm thickness with an aspect ratio of more than 100 [82,83]. Because of their characteristic morphology, extremely high surface-to-volume ratio, unique optical properties, and high mechanical strength, the development of methods for the preparation of nanofibers has become an important subject [84,85]. Chitin nanofibers (Chitin-NFs) are mainly prepared from crustacean and diatomaceous chitin powders according to newly adopted approaches and protocols. In particular, recent articles deal with the following advances: chitin-NFs isolated after hydrolysis in diluted HCl, chitin-NF isolated mechanically in the presence of minor amounts of acetic acid, chitosan-NF obtained from partially deacetylated chitin, mechanical fibrillation, fibrillation with the aid of sonication, manufacturing of chitin nanofibers by e-spinning, preparation and spinning of chitin solutions in ionic liquids, and manufacturing of aerogels [86]. Araki described the recent results on electrostatic and steric stabilizations of nanofibrils, together with brief and basic descriptions of their stabilization mechanisms [87]. Chitin nanofibers were isolated from the cell walls of five types of mushrooms by the removal of glucans, minerals, and proteins, followed by a simple grinding treatment under acidic conditions. The width of the nanofibers depended on the type of mushrooms from which they were obtained and varied between 20 and 28 nm; the crystalline structure was maintained and glucans remained on the nanofiber surface [21]. By similar means, chitin nanofibers (Φ 10–20 nm) were isolated from prawn shells under mild conditions (Figure 2) [88]. These nanofibers are considered to have great potential for various applications because they have several useful properties such as high specific surface area and high porosity [7]. Figure 3 shows field emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM) images of the crab shell surface after removal of proteins and calcium carbonate. Chitin nanofibers of approximately 10-nm thickness were observed. Thicker chitin-protein fibers with a diameter of approximately 100 nm were also observed and confirmed to be bundles of nanofibers of 10-nm width. The obtained chitin slurry (in neutral water) was passed through a grinder. The width of the fibers derived from crab shells after grinder treatment was distributed over a wide range, i.e., from 10 to 100 nm (Figure 4a). The twisted plywood structure seems disintegrated after application of a one-time grinder treatment. As a result, 100-nm-thick fibers were isolated from chitin-protein fibers. However, thicker fibers were not successfully disintegrated by grinder treatment, even though the protein layers were removed under a never dried condition. The chitin slurry thus obtained formed a gel after a single grinder treatment, suggesting that nano-fibrillation was accomplished because of the high dispersion property in acidic water and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanofiber. The disintegrated chitin was observed as highly uniform nanofibers with a width of 10 nm, suggesting that the fibrillation process was facilitated in acidic water (Figure 4b,c).


Chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives for wound healing: old and new materials.

Azuma K, Izumi R, Osaki T, Ifuku S, Morimoto M, Saimoto H, Minami S, Okamoto Y - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Chitin nanofiber.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384104&req=5

jfb-06-00104-f002: Chitin nanofiber.
Mentions: Nanofibers are fibers of less than 100 nm thickness with an aspect ratio of more than 100 [82,83]. Because of their characteristic morphology, extremely high surface-to-volume ratio, unique optical properties, and high mechanical strength, the development of methods for the preparation of nanofibers has become an important subject [84,85]. Chitin nanofibers (Chitin-NFs) are mainly prepared from crustacean and diatomaceous chitin powders according to newly adopted approaches and protocols. In particular, recent articles deal with the following advances: chitin-NFs isolated after hydrolysis in diluted HCl, chitin-NF isolated mechanically in the presence of minor amounts of acetic acid, chitosan-NF obtained from partially deacetylated chitin, mechanical fibrillation, fibrillation with the aid of sonication, manufacturing of chitin nanofibers by e-spinning, preparation and spinning of chitin solutions in ionic liquids, and manufacturing of aerogels [86]. Araki described the recent results on electrostatic and steric stabilizations of nanofibrils, together with brief and basic descriptions of their stabilization mechanisms [87]. Chitin nanofibers were isolated from the cell walls of five types of mushrooms by the removal of glucans, minerals, and proteins, followed by a simple grinding treatment under acidic conditions. The width of the nanofibers depended on the type of mushrooms from which they were obtained and varied between 20 and 28 nm; the crystalline structure was maintained and glucans remained on the nanofiber surface [21]. By similar means, chitin nanofibers (Φ 10–20 nm) were isolated from prawn shells under mild conditions (Figure 2) [88]. These nanofibers are considered to have great potential for various applications because they have several useful properties such as high specific surface area and high porosity [7]. Figure 3 shows field emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM) images of the crab shell surface after removal of proteins and calcium carbonate. Chitin nanofibers of approximately 10-nm thickness were observed. Thicker chitin-protein fibers with a diameter of approximately 100 nm were also observed and confirmed to be bundles of nanofibers of 10-nm width. The obtained chitin slurry (in neutral water) was passed through a grinder. The width of the fibers derived from crab shells after grinder treatment was distributed over a wide range, i.e., from 10 to 100 nm (Figure 4a). The twisted plywood structure seems disintegrated after application of a one-time grinder treatment. As a result, 100-nm-thick fibers were isolated from chitin-protein fibers. However, thicker fibers were not successfully disintegrated by grinder treatment, even though the protein layers were removed under a never dried condition. The chitin slurry thus obtained formed a gel after a single grinder treatment, suggesting that nano-fibrillation was accomplished because of the high dispersion property in acidic water and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanofiber. The disintegrated chitin was observed as highly uniform nanofibers with a width of 10 nm, suggesting that the fibrillation process was facilitated in acidic water (Figure 4b,c).

Bottom Line: In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized.Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described.Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. kazu-azuma@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described. The evidence indicates that chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are beneficial for the wound healing process. More recently, it is also indicate that some nano-based materials from chitin and chitosan are beneficial than chitin and chitosan for wound healing. Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus