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Modulation of the tumor microenvironment for cancer treatment: a biomaterials approach.

Adjei IM, Blanka S - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: Increasingly, there is evidence to suggest that these non-neoplastic cell components support cancer initiation, progression and metastasis and that their ablation or reprogramming can inhibit tumor growth.Our understanding of the activities of different parts of the tumor stroma in advancing cancer has been improved by the use of scaffold and matrix-based 3D systems originally developed for regenerative medicine.We also discuss how different drug delivery systems aid in the reprogramming of tumor stroma for cancer treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. adjeii@ufl.edu.

ABSTRACT
Tumors are complex tissues that consist of stromal cells, such as fibroblasts, immune cells and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as non-cellular components, in addition to neoplastic cells. Increasingly, there is evidence to suggest that these non-neoplastic cell components support cancer initiation, progression and metastasis and that their ablation or reprogramming can inhibit tumor growth. Our understanding of the activities of different parts of the tumor stroma in advancing cancer has been improved by the use of scaffold and matrix-based 3D systems originally developed for regenerative medicine. Additionally, drug delivery systems made from synthetic and natural biomaterials deliver drugs to kill stromal cells or reprogram the microenvironment for tumor inhibition. In this article, we review the impact of 3D tumor models in increasing our understanding of tumorigenesis. We also discuss how different drug delivery systems aid in the reprogramming of tumor stroma for cancer treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Strengths and weaknesses of 2D and 3D in vitro culture. Cells in 2D monolayer cultures lose their morphology and polarity, while cells in 3D matrices retain their morphology.
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jfb-06-00081-f001: Strengths and weaknesses of 2D and 3D in vitro culture. Cells in 2D monolayer cultures lose their morphology and polarity, while cells in 3D matrices retain their morphology.

Mentions: The study of human cancer biology, as well as the development and testing of anti-cancer drugs, typically begins with in vitro culture of cancer cells in Petri dishes. Two-dimensional monolayer cell cultures were used in early efforts to understand the interactions between cancer cells and tumor stromal cells and how these interactions influenced the disease process. However, these 2D systems have poor resemblance to the 3D in vivo tumor environment and often have little value in predicting the clinical efficacy of therapies [63]. For example, cancer cells in 2D demonstrate uniform growth, with most cells at the same cell cycle stage, unlike cancer cells in vivo, which are at different stages of the cell cycle. They also do not capture the phenotypic heterogeneity in terms of gene expression and differentiation in tumors [64,65]. To overcome some of these shortfalls, 3D culture systems have been employed, in which cancer cells lose polarity and form cell aggregates, thereby accounting for the tumor architecture that is absent in 2D cultures (Figure 1) [3,66,67]. These characteristics make 3D models physiologically relevant systems for the study of tumor dynamics and response to therapies [4,68].


Modulation of the tumor microenvironment for cancer treatment: a biomaterials approach.

Adjei IM, Blanka S - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Strengths and weaknesses of 2D and 3D in vitro culture. Cells in 2D monolayer cultures lose their morphology and polarity, while cells in 3D matrices retain their morphology.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384103&req=5

jfb-06-00081-f001: Strengths and weaknesses of 2D and 3D in vitro culture. Cells in 2D monolayer cultures lose their morphology and polarity, while cells in 3D matrices retain their morphology.
Mentions: The study of human cancer biology, as well as the development and testing of anti-cancer drugs, typically begins with in vitro culture of cancer cells in Petri dishes. Two-dimensional monolayer cell cultures were used in early efforts to understand the interactions between cancer cells and tumor stromal cells and how these interactions influenced the disease process. However, these 2D systems have poor resemblance to the 3D in vivo tumor environment and often have little value in predicting the clinical efficacy of therapies [63]. For example, cancer cells in 2D demonstrate uniform growth, with most cells at the same cell cycle stage, unlike cancer cells in vivo, which are at different stages of the cell cycle. They also do not capture the phenotypic heterogeneity in terms of gene expression and differentiation in tumors [64,65]. To overcome some of these shortfalls, 3D culture systems have been employed, in which cancer cells lose polarity and form cell aggregates, thereby accounting for the tumor architecture that is absent in 2D cultures (Figure 1) [3,66,67]. These characteristics make 3D models physiologically relevant systems for the study of tumor dynamics and response to therapies [4,68].

Bottom Line: Increasingly, there is evidence to suggest that these non-neoplastic cell components support cancer initiation, progression and metastasis and that their ablation or reprogramming can inhibit tumor growth.Our understanding of the activities of different parts of the tumor stroma in advancing cancer has been improved by the use of scaffold and matrix-based 3D systems originally developed for regenerative medicine.We also discuss how different drug delivery systems aid in the reprogramming of tumor stroma for cancer treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. adjeii@ufl.edu.

ABSTRACT
Tumors are complex tissues that consist of stromal cells, such as fibroblasts, immune cells and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as non-cellular components, in addition to neoplastic cells. Increasingly, there is evidence to suggest that these non-neoplastic cell components support cancer initiation, progression and metastasis and that their ablation or reprogramming can inhibit tumor growth. Our understanding of the activities of different parts of the tumor stroma in advancing cancer has been improved by the use of scaffold and matrix-based 3D systems originally developed for regenerative medicine. Additionally, drug delivery systems made from synthetic and natural biomaterials deliver drugs to kill stromal cells or reprogram the microenvironment for tumor inhibition. In this article, we review the impact of 3D tumor models in increasing our understanding of tumorigenesis. We also discuss how different drug delivery systems aid in the reprogramming of tumor stroma for cancer treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus