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Biofilms in infections of the eye.

Bispo PJ, Haas W, Gilmore MS - Pathogens (2015)

Bottom Line: Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell-cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing.Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants.In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Ophthalmology, Microbiology and Immunology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114 USA.

ABSTRACT
The ability to form biofilms in a variety of environments is a common trait of bacteria, and may represent one of the earliest defenses against predation. Biofilms are multicellular communities usually held together by a polymeric matrix, ranging from capsular material to cell lysate. In a structure that imposes diffusion limits, environmental microgradients arise to which individual bacteria adapt their physiologies, resulting in the gamut of physiological diversity. Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell-cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing. Biofilms form on abiotic or biotic surfaces, and because of that are associated with a large proportion of human infections. Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants. In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma. As the evidence for the involvement of microbial biofilms in many ocular infections has become compelling, developing new strategies to prevent their formation or to eradicate them at the site of infection, has become a priority.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Confocal laser scanning micrograph of a 24 h biofilm. The biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A was grown in vitro on hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, and was visualized after staining using the live/dead viability stain, which contains SYTO9 (green fluorescence, live cells) and propidium iodine (red fluorescence, bacterial cells that have a defective cell membrane, which is indicative of dead cells). Magnification X 400, scale bar is 20 µm.
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pathogens-04-00111-f001: Confocal laser scanning micrograph of a 24 h biofilm. The biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A was grown in vitro on hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, and was visualized after staining using the live/dead viability stain, which contains SYTO9 (green fluorescence, live cells) and propidium iodine (red fluorescence, bacterial cells that have a defective cell membrane, which is indicative of dead cells). Magnification X 400, scale bar is 20 µm.

Mentions: Previous reports have demonstrated the ability of S. epidermidis to form biofilms on IOLs (Figure 1) using different in vitro conditions [53,54,55,57], and in a model that resembles the intraocular environment [51,52]. The degree of biofilm formation is affected by the material used to manufacture the IOL and also by the genomic content of each S. epidermidis lineage tested. Strains of S. epidermidis carrying the ica locus are able to form stronger biofilms on different IOL surfaces compared to strains lacking this locus [53,55,57]. In one study [55], using various hydrophobic IOLs, the ability of S. epidermidis strains ATCC 12228 (ica negative) and ATCC 35984 (ica positive) to form biofilms was significantly higher on acrylic lenses followed by PMMA and MPC (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) surface-modified acrylic. Weaker biofilms were found on silicone IOLs. Interestingly, modification of the acrylic IOL surface by treatment with MPC decreased biofilm formation [55] and this may be associated with an increase in the hydrophilicity [70]. The same effect has been demonstrated for MPC-modified silicone IOL [71]. Other reports [51,53,72,73], however, have found different results for each IOL material and that was also affected by the strains tested. Foldable IOLs made with silicone supported greater S. epidermidis biofilm formation compared to PMMA IOL for strain ATCC 35984, but the same was not seen for the strain ATCC 12228 [53]. In the same study, variations of up to two orders of magnitude in the degree of biofilm formation, as determined by CFU counting, were observed for the same IOL material depending on different models and manufacturers. Acrylic lenses were again the most prone to form stronger biofilms and fluorine-treated PMMA the least. The presence of polypropylene haptics in the PMMA IOL increased the biofilm quantity compared to single-piece PMMA IOL [53]. In agreement, it has been demonstrated that polypropylene haptics represents a significant risk factor for post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis [72], and increases in vitro adhesion of S. epidermidis compared to single- and three-piece PMMA IOL [73]. In a model using a bioreactor with flow conditions similar to the anterior chamber, S. epidermidis was able to form biofilms on different IOL materials, which significantly increased as a function of time [52]. Silicone was more permissive to biofilm formation in this model, followed by hydrophobic acrylic and PMMA, with the fewest attached cells found on hydrophilic acrylic.


Biofilms in infections of the eye.

Bispo PJ, Haas W, Gilmore MS - Pathogens (2015)

Confocal laser scanning micrograph of a 24 h biofilm. The biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A was grown in vitro on hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, and was visualized after staining using the live/dead viability stain, which contains SYTO9 (green fluorescence, live cells) and propidium iodine (red fluorescence, bacterial cells that have a defective cell membrane, which is indicative of dead cells). Magnification X 400, scale bar is 20 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384075&req=5

pathogens-04-00111-f001: Confocal laser scanning micrograph of a 24 h biofilm. The biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A was grown in vitro on hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, and was visualized after staining using the live/dead viability stain, which contains SYTO9 (green fluorescence, live cells) and propidium iodine (red fluorescence, bacterial cells that have a defective cell membrane, which is indicative of dead cells). Magnification X 400, scale bar is 20 µm.
Mentions: Previous reports have demonstrated the ability of S. epidermidis to form biofilms on IOLs (Figure 1) using different in vitro conditions [53,54,55,57], and in a model that resembles the intraocular environment [51,52]. The degree of biofilm formation is affected by the material used to manufacture the IOL and also by the genomic content of each S. epidermidis lineage tested. Strains of S. epidermidis carrying the ica locus are able to form stronger biofilms on different IOL surfaces compared to strains lacking this locus [53,55,57]. In one study [55], using various hydrophobic IOLs, the ability of S. epidermidis strains ATCC 12228 (ica negative) and ATCC 35984 (ica positive) to form biofilms was significantly higher on acrylic lenses followed by PMMA and MPC (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) surface-modified acrylic. Weaker biofilms were found on silicone IOLs. Interestingly, modification of the acrylic IOL surface by treatment with MPC decreased biofilm formation [55] and this may be associated with an increase in the hydrophilicity [70]. The same effect has been demonstrated for MPC-modified silicone IOL [71]. Other reports [51,53,72,73], however, have found different results for each IOL material and that was also affected by the strains tested. Foldable IOLs made with silicone supported greater S. epidermidis biofilm formation compared to PMMA IOL for strain ATCC 35984, but the same was not seen for the strain ATCC 12228 [53]. In the same study, variations of up to two orders of magnitude in the degree of biofilm formation, as determined by CFU counting, were observed for the same IOL material depending on different models and manufacturers. Acrylic lenses were again the most prone to form stronger biofilms and fluorine-treated PMMA the least. The presence of polypropylene haptics in the PMMA IOL increased the biofilm quantity compared to single-piece PMMA IOL [53]. In agreement, it has been demonstrated that polypropylene haptics represents a significant risk factor for post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis [72], and increases in vitro adhesion of S. epidermidis compared to single- and three-piece PMMA IOL [73]. In a model using a bioreactor with flow conditions similar to the anterior chamber, S. epidermidis was able to form biofilms on different IOL materials, which significantly increased as a function of time [52]. Silicone was more permissive to biofilm formation in this model, followed by hydrophobic acrylic and PMMA, with the fewest attached cells found on hydrophilic acrylic.

Bottom Line: Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell-cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing.Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants.In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Ophthalmology, Microbiology and Immunology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114 USA.

ABSTRACT
The ability to form biofilms in a variety of environments is a common trait of bacteria, and may represent one of the earliest defenses against predation. Biofilms are multicellular communities usually held together by a polymeric matrix, ranging from capsular material to cell lysate. In a structure that imposes diffusion limits, environmental microgradients arise to which individual bacteria adapt their physiologies, resulting in the gamut of physiological diversity. Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell-cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing. Biofilms form on abiotic or biotic surfaces, and because of that are associated with a large proportion of human infections. Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants. In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma. As the evidence for the involvement of microbial biofilms in many ocular infections has become compelling, developing new strategies to prevent their formation or to eradicate them at the site of infection, has become a priority.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus