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Is black always the opposite of white? An investigation on the comprehension of antonyms in people with schizophrenia and in healthy participants.

Cacciari C, Pesciarelli F, Gamberoni T, Ferlazzo F, Russo LL, Pedrazzi F, Melati E - Behav Sci (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, we tested the online comprehension of antonyms in 39 Italian patients with paranoid schizophrenia and in an equal number of pairwise-matched healthy controls.Patients were rather accurate in identifying antonyms, but compared to controls, they showed longer response times and higher priming scores, suggesting an exaggerated contextual facilitation.Presumably, this reflects a deficient controlled semantic processing and an overreliance on stored semantic representations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neurological Sciences, University of Modena, Via Campi 287, Modena 41100, Italy. cristina.cacciari@unimore.it.

ABSTRACT
The present investigation sought to expand our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of antonyms and to evaluate whether these processes differed in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Antonymy is the most robust of the lexico-semantic relations and is relevant to both the mental organization of the lexicon and the organization of coherent discourse, as attested by the resurgence of interest in antonymy in the linguistic and psychological domains. In contrast, the vast literature on semantic processing in schizophrenia almost ignored antonymy. In this study, we tested the online comprehension of antonyms in 39 Italian patients with paranoid schizophrenia and in an equal number of pairwise-matched healthy controls. Participants read a definitional sentence fragment (e.g., the opposite of black is), followed by the correct antonym (white) or by a semantically unrelated word (nice), and judged whether or not the target word was correct. Patients were rather accurate in identifying antonyms, but compared to controls, they showed longer response times and higher priming scores, suggesting an exaggerated contextual facilitation. Presumably, this reflects a deficient controlled semantic processing and an overreliance on stored semantic representations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean reaction times (A) and mean percentage of correct responses (B) for controls and patients in opposite (bright gray bar) and non-opposite (dark gray bar) conditions. Bars represent standard errors of the mean.
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behavsci-05-00093-f001: Mean reaction times (A) and mean percentage of correct responses (B) for controls and patients in opposite (bright gray bar) and non-opposite (dark gray bar) conditions. Bars represent standard errors of the mean.

Mentions: The mean response times to correct responses and the accuracy proportions are shown in Figure 1.


Is black always the opposite of white? An investigation on the comprehension of antonyms in people with schizophrenia and in healthy participants.

Cacciari C, Pesciarelli F, Gamberoni T, Ferlazzo F, Russo LL, Pedrazzi F, Melati E - Behav Sci (Basel) (2015)

Mean reaction times (A) and mean percentage of correct responses (B) for controls and patients in opposite (bright gray bar) and non-opposite (dark gray bar) conditions. Bars represent standard errors of the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384065&req=5

behavsci-05-00093-f001: Mean reaction times (A) and mean percentage of correct responses (B) for controls and patients in opposite (bright gray bar) and non-opposite (dark gray bar) conditions. Bars represent standard errors of the mean.
Mentions: The mean response times to correct responses and the accuracy proportions are shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: In this study, we tested the online comprehension of antonyms in 39 Italian patients with paranoid schizophrenia and in an equal number of pairwise-matched healthy controls.Patients were rather accurate in identifying antonyms, but compared to controls, they showed longer response times and higher priming scores, suggesting an exaggerated contextual facilitation.Presumably, this reflects a deficient controlled semantic processing and an overreliance on stored semantic representations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neurological Sciences, University of Modena, Via Campi 287, Modena 41100, Italy. cristina.cacciari@unimore.it.

ABSTRACT
The present investigation sought to expand our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of antonyms and to evaluate whether these processes differed in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Antonymy is the most robust of the lexico-semantic relations and is relevant to both the mental organization of the lexicon and the organization of coherent discourse, as attested by the resurgence of interest in antonymy in the linguistic and psychological domains. In contrast, the vast literature on semantic processing in schizophrenia almost ignored antonymy. In this study, we tested the online comprehension of antonyms in 39 Italian patients with paranoid schizophrenia and in an equal number of pairwise-matched healthy controls. Participants read a definitional sentence fragment (e.g., the opposite of black is), followed by the correct antonym (white) or by a semantically unrelated word (nice), and judged whether or not the target word was correct. Patients were rather accurate in identifying antonyms, but compared to controls, they showed longer response times and higher priming scores, suggesting an exaggerated contextual facilitation. Presumably, this reflects a deficient controlled semantic processing and an overreliance on stored semantic representations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus