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PAHs in baby food: assessment of three different processing techniques for the preparation of reference materials.

Huertas-Pérez JF, Bordajandi LR, Sejerøe-Olsen B, Emteborg H, Baù A, Schimmel H, Dabrio M - Anal Bioanal Chem (2015)

Bottom Line: To this end, an analytical method based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by cleaning up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) and GC-IDMS determination, was validated in-house.It could be demonstrated that the procedure fulfilled the demands for application to the homogeneity and isochronous stability studies for the candidate reference materials targeted here.All three materials proved to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium, huertas@ugr.es.

ABSTRACT
A feasibility study for producing a matrix reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in baby food is reported. A commercially available baby food, containing carrots, potatoes, tomato, white beans and meat, was spiked with the so-called 15 + 1 PAHs included in the PAHs priority list for food of the EU, at a mass fraction level of 1 μg/kg. The contaminated baby food was further processed by autoclaving, freezing or freeze drying. The homogeneity of the three materials (bottle-to-bottle variation) and their short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (18 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. To this end, an analytical method based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by cleaning up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) and GC-IDMS determination, was validated in-house. It could be demonstrated that the procedure fulfilled the demands for application to the homogeneity and isochronous stability studies for the candidate reference materials targeted here. All three materials proved to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use. Measurements on the autoclaved material provided the most promising results in terms of envisaged shelf life, although freeze drying was also found to be a suitable processing technique for most of the investigated PAHs. These results are an important step towards the development of a matrix reference material for PAHs in a processed food matrix in a presentation very similar to routine samples.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Shelf lives (months) predicted for a target uncertainty of 5 % for each considered PAH in the frozen, autoclaved and freeze-dried materials
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Fig3: Shelf lives (months) predicted for a target uncertainty of 5 % for each considered PAH in the frozen, autoclaved and freeze-dried materials

Mentions: The slopes and statistical parameters associated with the long-term stability study are presented in Table 4. In this case, the AC material tested at 4 and 18 °C for 18 months, showed degradation only for DahP at both temperatures (α = 0.01). A significant slope was detected for DahA at 18 °C, indicating losses for this analyte when stored under these conditions. For the FD material, five PAHs (CPP, BaP, DalP, DaeP, DahP) showed a statistically significant slope at 18 °C. Furthermore, DahP exhibited instability as well at 4 °C. In the case of BbF, although showing a significant slope at 4 °C, results suggested stability of this compound when the FD material is stored at 18 °C. None of the analytes showed significant trend in the frozen material at −20 °C (α = 0.01). In order to provide a more general picture about the stability of the analytes between the different materials, data were re-evaluated at 95 % of confidence levels. No significant changes were found compared with results at 99 % confidence interval except in very few cases. BjF and DaiP exhibited significant trend in the AC material at 4 °C (α = 0.05). However, results for BjF proved stability for this compound when the AC material is stored at 18 °C. On the other hand, DaiP showed instability at 18 °C in the AC material, similarly to the results obtained when data were scrutinised at 99 % confidence level. In the case of the FD material, the only difference found when data were evaluated at 95 % confidence level concerned only DaiP, which showed significant trends at both temperatures (4 and 18 °C), therefore these results show losses of this compound in the FD material. No differences were found for FR at −20 °C when results for the LTS study were scrutinised at 95 % confidence interval and were compared with those scrutinised at 99 % confidence interval. For the sake of comparison, the approximate shelf lives for each considered PAH in the FR, AC and FD materials were predicted for a target uncertainty of 5 %. As can be seen in Fig. 3, for the majority of the analytes, adequate stability was obtained for the freeze-dried material stored at 4 °C. For a CRM producer, higher temperatures (ideally above zero) facilitate the storage and distribution of the material. However, freeze-dried materials are provided in a physical form that requires reconstitution and which could potentially change the properties of the matrix after reconstitution.Table 4


PAHs in baby food: assessment of three different processing techniques for the preparation of reference materials.

Huertas-Pérez JF, Bordajandi LR, Sejerøe-Olsen B, Emteborg H, Baù A, Schimmel H, Dabrio M - Anal Bioanal Chem (2015)

Shelf lives (months) predicted for a target uncertainty of 5 % for each considered PAH in the frozen, autoclaved and freeze-dried materials
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383830&req=5

Fig3: Shelf lives (months) predicted for a target uncertainty of 5 % for each considered PAH in the frozen, autoclaved and freeze-dried materials
Mentions: The slopes and statistical parameters associated with the long-term stability study are presented in Table 4. In this case, the AC material tested at 4 and 18 °C for 18 months, showed degradation only for DahP at both temperatures (α = 0.01). A significant slope was detected for DahA at 18 °C, indicating losses for this analyte when stored under these conditions. For the FD material, five PAHs (CPP, BaP, DalP, DaeP, DahP) showed a statistically significant slope at 18 °C. Furthermore, DahP exhibited instability as well at 4 °C. In the case of BbF, although showing a significant slope at 4 °C, results suggested stability of this compound when the FD material is stored at 18 °C. None of the analytes showed significant trend in the frozen material at −20 °C (α = 0.01). In order to provide a more general picture about the stability of the analytes between the different materials, data were re-evaluated at 95 % of confidence levels. No significant changes were found compared with results at 99 % confidence interval except in very few cases. BjF and DaiP exhibited significant trend in the AC material at 4 °C (α = 0.05). However, results for BjF proved stability for this compound when the AC material is stored at 18 °C. On the other hand, DaiP showed instability at 18 °C in the AC material, similarly to the results obtained when data were scrutinised at 99 % confidence level. In the case of the FD material, the only difference found when data were evaluated at 95 % confidence level concerned only DaiP, which showed significant trends at both temperatures (4 and 18 °C), therefore these results show losses of this compound in the FD material. No differences were found for FR at −20 °C when results for the LTS study were scrutinised at 95 % confidence interval and were compared with those scrutinised at 99 % confidence interval. For the sake of comparison, the approximate shelf lives for each considered PAH in the FR, AC and FD materials were predicted for a target uncertainty of 5 %. As can be seen in Fig. 3, for the majority of the analytes, adequate stability was obtained for the freeze-dried material stored at 4 °C. For a CRM producer, higher temperatures (ideally above zero) facilitate the storage and distribution of the material. However, freeze-dried materials are provided in a physical form that requires reconstitution and which could potentially change the properties of the matrix after reconstitution.Table 4

Bottom Line: To this end, an analytical method based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by cleaning up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) and GC-IDMS determination, was validated in-house.It could be demonstrated that the procedure fulfilled the demands for application to the homogeneity and isochronous stability studies for the candidate reference materials targeted here.All three materials proved to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium, huertas@ugr.es.

ABSTRACT
A feasibility study for producing a matrix reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in baby food is reported. A commercially available baby food, containing carrots, potatoes, tomato, white beans and meat, was spiked with the so-called 15 + 1 PAHs included in the PAHs priority list for food of the EU, at a mass fraction level of 1 μg/kg. The contaminated baby food was further processed by autoclaving, freezing or freeze drying. The homogeneity of the three materials (bottle-to-bottle variation) and their short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (18 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. To this end, an analytical method based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by cleaning up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) and GC-IDMS determination, was validated in-house. It could be demonstrated that the procedure fulfilled the demands for application to the homogeneity and isochronous stability studies for the candidate reference materials targeted here. All three materials proved to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use. Measurements on the autoclaved material provided the most promising results in terms of envisaged shelf life, although freeze drying was also found to be a suitable processing technique for most of the investigated PAHs. These results are an important step towards the development of a matrix reference material for PAHs in a processed food matrix in a presentation very similar to routine samples.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus