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Novel concepts for preparation of reference materials as whole water samples for priority substances at nanogram-per-liter level using model suspended particulate matter and humic acids.

Elordui-Zapatarietxe S, Fettig I, Philipp R, Gantois F, Lalère B, Swart C, Petrov P, Goenaga-Infante H, Vanermen G, Boom G, Emteborg H - Anal Bioanal Chem (2014)

Bottom Line: One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations.The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water.In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations. In the present study, three different types of ready-to-use water test materials were developed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tributyltin (TBT) at nanogram-per-liter levels. The first type simulated the dissolved phase in the water and comprised of a solution of humic acids (HA) at 5 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a spike of the target compounds. The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water. To this end, model suspended particulate matter (SPM) with a realistic particle size was produced by jet milling soil and sediments containing known amounts of PAHs, PBDEs and TBT and added as slurry to mineral water. The most complex test materials mimicked "whole water" consequently containing both phases, the model SPM and the HA solution with the target analytes strongly bound to the SPM. In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of irradiation on TBT test materials containing SPM (a) and SPM + HA (b) and stored at different temperatures. The dotted line (100 %) corresponds to the concentration in non-irradiated reference samples (t = 0 weeks). Error bars represent ±one standard deviation of the measurement mean
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Fig4: Effect of irradiation on TBT test materials containing SPM (a) and SPM + HA (b) and stored at different temperatures. The dotted line (100 %) corresponds to the concentration in non-irradiated reference samples (t = 0 weeks). Error bars represent ±one standard deviation of the measurement mean

Mentions: The initial expectations that a relatively low dose of γ-irradiation would stabilise the samples and the analytes were unfortunately not confirmed since losses of analyte were incurred by irradiation. The degree, to which the compounds are affected by γ-irradiation, depends greatly on their distribution between the different phases in the water. The irradiation affected TBT both in the dissolved phase and in the SPM phase but while TBT disappeared completely in the dissolved phase (below detection limit), quantifiable amounts of TBT remained intact on the model SPM (Fig. 4). For these samples, about 50 % of the TBT remained after gamma-irradiation as can be observed comparing with the irradiated reference samples (at t = 0 weeks) to the reference samples without irradiation (represented as the 100 % line). The shielding effect coming from the SPM has been observed previously. A similar study [39] showed that only 38 % of the TBT spiked into soils was degraded while up to 90 % loss occurred in a methanol solution upon irradiation (dose of 25 kGy). Similar results were obtained for PAHs.Fig. 4


Novel concepts for preparation of reference materials as whole water samples for priority substances at nanogram-per-liter level using model suspended particulate matter and humic acids.

Elordui-Zapatarietxe S, Fettig I, Philipp R, Gantois F, Lalère B, Swart C, Petrov P, Goenaga-Infante H, Vanermen G, Boom G, Emteborg H - Anal Bioanal Chem (2014)

Effect of irradiation on TBT test materials containing SPM (a) and SPM + HA (b) and stored at different temperatures. The dotted line (100 %) corresponds to the concentration in non-irradiated reference samples (t = 0 weeks). Error bars represent ±one standard deviation of the measurement mean
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383825&req=5

Fig4: Effect of irradiation on TBT test materials containing SPM (a) and SPM + HA (b) and stored at different temperatures. The dotted line (100 %) corresponds to the concentration in non-irradiated reference samples (t = 0 weeks). Error bars represent ±one standard deviation of the measurement mean
Mentions: The initial expectations that a relatively low dose of γ-irradiation would stabilise the samples and the analytes were unfortunately not confirmed since losses of analyte were incurred by irradiation. The degree, to which the compounds are affected by γ-irradiation, depends greatly on their distribution between the different phases in the water. The irradiation affected TBT both in the dissolved phase and in the SPM phase but while TBT disappeared completely in the dissolved phase (below detection limit), quantifiable amounts of TBT remained intact on the model SPM (Fig. 4). For these samples, about 50 % of the TBT remained after gamma-irradiation as can be observed comparing with the irradiated reference samples (at t = 0 weeks) to the reference samples without irradiation (represented as the 100 % line). The shielding effect coming from the SPM has been observed previously. A similar study [39] showed that only 38 % of the TBT spiked into soils was degraded while up to 90 % loss occurred in a methanol solution upon irradiation (dose of 25 kGy). Similar results were obtained for PAHs.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations.The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water.In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations. In the present study, three different types of ready-to-use water test materials were developed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tributyltin (TBT) at nanogram-per-liter levels. The first type simulated the dissolved phase in the water and comprised of a solution of humic acids (HA) at 5 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a spike of the target compounds. The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water. To this end, model suspended particulate matter (SPM) with a realistic particle size was produced by jet milling soil and sediments containing known amounts of PAHs, PBDEs and TBT and added as slurry to mineral water. The most complex test materials mimicked "whole water" consequently containing both phases, the model SPM and the HA solution with the target analytes strongly bound to the SPM. In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus