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Novel concepts for preparation of reference materials as whole water samples for priority substances at nanogram-per-liter level using model suspended particulate matter and humic acids.

Elordui-Zapatarietxe S, Fettig I, Philipp R, Gantois F, Lalère B, Swart C, Petrov P, Goenaga-Infante H, Vanermen G, Boom G, Emteborg H - Anal Bioanal Chem (2014)

Bottom Line: One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations.The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water.In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations. In the present study, three different types of ready-to-use water test materials were developed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tributyltin (TBT) at nanogram-per-liter levels. The first type simulated the dissolved phase in the water and comprised of a solution of humic acids (HA) at 5 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a spike of the target compounds. The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water. To this end, model suspended particulate matter (SPM) with a realistic particle size was produced by jet milling soil and sediments containing known amounts of PAHs, PBDEs and TBT and added as slurry to mineral water. The most complex test materials mimicked "whole water" consequently containing both phases, the model SPM and the HA solution with the target analytes strongly bound to the SPM. In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Particle size distribution of the SPM containing PAHs (a), PBDEs (b) and TBT (c) by field-flow fractionation (FFF). On the left, overlaid UV fractograms (graphs of a detection signal vs. time) of 200 nm and 450 nm PBDE SPM filtrates are shown. On the right, the geometrical mean spherical radius is displayed of a 450-nm filtrate as determined by MALS detection
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Fig3: Particle size distribution of the SPM containing PAHs (a), PBDEs (b) and TBT (c) by field-flow fractionation (FFF). On the left, overlaid UV fractograms (graphs of a detection signal vs. time) of 200 nm and 450 nm PBDE SPM filtrates are shown. On the right, the geometrical mean spherical radius is displayed of a 450-nm filtrate as determined by MALS detection

Mentions: Particles smaller than 0.45 μm and their size distribution as measured by FFF are displayed in Fig. 3. Naturally occurring particles smaller than 0.45 μm are not clearly defined spherical particles but rather a complex mixture of particles of different shapes and possibly agglomerates of very small particles. The FFF results should be considered in this context and that a spherical calibration and fit has been used to characterise this fraction by MALS. In Fig. 3a, the PAH SPM is displayed where the particles ranged from about 100 to 300 nm. Small organic particles below 20 nm as detected by UV can be observed but in rather low amounts. In Fig. 3b, the PBDE SPM is displayed which has particles with diameter from about 100 to 270 nm with a polymodal distribution and is lacking organic particles below 20 nm. In Fig. 3c, the TBT SPM is shown where most of the particle sizes ranged from approximately 100 nm to 300 nm which are assumed to be agglomerates of smaller particles. There is a high amount of small-sized particles below 20 nm with a high OM content (represented by the early UV peak in Fig. 3c) which correlates well with the high OM content reported in Table 3.Fig. 3


Novel concepts for preparation of reference materials as whole water samples for priority substances at nanogram-per-liter level using model suspended particulate matter and humic acids.

Elordui-Zapatarietxe S, Fettig I, Philipp R, Gantois F, Lalère B, Swart C, Petrov P, Goenaga-Infante H, Vanermen G, Boom G, Emteborg H - Anal Bioanal Chem (2014)

Particle size distribution of the SPM containing PAHs (a), PBDEs (b) and TBT (c) by field-flow fractionation (FFF). On the left, overlaid UV fractograms (graphs of a detection signal vs. time) of 200 nm and 450 nm PBDE SPM filtrates are shown. On the right, the geometrical mean spherical radius is displayed of a 450-nm filtrate as determined by MALS detection
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383825&req=5

Fig3: Particle size distribution of the SPM containing PAHs (a), PBDEs (b) and TBT (c) by field-flow fractionation (FFF). On the left, overlaid UV fractograms (graphs of a detection signal vs. time) of 200 nm and 450 nm PBDE SPM filtrates are shown. On the right, the geometrical mean spherical radius is displayed of a 450-nm filtrate as determined by MALS detection
Mentions: Particles smaller than 0.45 μm and their size distribution as measured by FFF are displayed in Fig. 3. Naturally occurring particles smaller than 0.45 μm are not clearly defined spherical particles but rather a complex mixture of particles of different shapes and possibly agglomerates of very small particles. The FFF results should be considered in this context and that a spherical calibration and fit has been used to characterise this fraction by MALS. In Fig. 3a, the PAH SPM is displayed where the particles ranged from about 100 to 300 nm. Small organic particles below 20 nm as detected by UV can be observed but in rather low amounts. In Fig. 3b, the PBDE SPM is displayed which has particles with diameter from about 100 to 270 nm with a polymodal distribution and is lacking organic particles below 20 nm. In Fig. 3c, the TBT SPM is shown where most of the particle sizes ranged from approximately 100 nm to 300 nm which are assumed to be agglomerates of smaller particles. There is a high amount of small-sized particles below 20 nm with a high OM content (represented by the early UV peak in Fig. 3c) which correlates well with the high OM content reported in Table 3.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations.The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water.In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations. In the present study, three different types of ready-to-use water test materials were developed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tributyltin (TBT) at nanogram-per-liter levels. The first type simulated the dissolved phase in the water and comprised of a solution of humic acids (HA) at 5 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a spike of the target compounds. The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water. To this end, model suspended particulate matter (SPM) with a realistic particle size was produced by jet milling soil and sediments containing known amounts of PAHs, PBDEs and TBT and added as slurry to mineral water. The most complex test materials mimicked "whole water" consequently containing both phases, the model SPM and the HA solution with the target analytes strongly bound to the SPM. In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus