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Trace element distribution in the snow cover from an urban area in central Poland.

Siudek P, Frankowski M, Siepak J - Environ Monit Assess (2015)

Bottom Line: This work presents the first results from winter field campaigns focusing on trace metals and metalloid chemistry in the snow cover from an urbanized region in central Poland.The highest concentration (in μg L(-1)) was reported for Pb (34.90), followed by Ni (31.37), Zn (31.00), Cu (13.71), Cr (2.36), As (1.58), and Cd (0.25).In addition, several major anthropogenic sources were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA), among which the most significant was the activity of industry and coal combustion for residential heating.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Water and Soil Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89b Street, 61-614, Poznań, Poland, pat.s@amu.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
This work presents the first results from winter field campaigns focusing on trace metals and metalloid chemistry in the snow cover from an urbanized region in central Poland. Samples were collected between January and March 2013 and trace element concentrations were determined using GF-AAS. A large inter-seasonal variability depending on anthropogenic emission, depositional processes, and meteorological conditions was observed. The highest concentration (in μg L(-1)) was reported for Pb (34.90), followed by Ni (31.37), Zn (31.00), Cu (13.71), Cr (2.36), As (1.58), and Cd (0.25). In addition, several major anthropogenic sources were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA), among which the most significant was the activity of industry and coal combustion for residential heating. It was stated that elevated concentrations of some trace metals in snow samples were associated with frequent occurrence of south and southeast advection of highly polluted air masses toward the sampling site, suggesting a large impact of regional urban/industrial pollution plumes.

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Intra-seasonal variation in trace metal/metalloid concentration in the urban snow cover from Poznań in 2013
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig2: Intra-seasonal variation in trace metal/metalloid concentration in the urban snow cover from Poznań in 2013

Mentions: Figure 2 illustrates variation of trace element concentrations in the shallow snow cover collected in Poznań during the 3-month field campaigns. In general, maximum concentration of individual species did not occur during the same snow events, suggesting a difference in the conditions of the snow cover formation, industrial activities, air mass transport, and fluctuations in air temperature. High variability in As concentrations was found in March (M1 and M3), whereas the lowest value occurred in February (F1). Intra-seasonal variation in the median As concentration was not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Snow samples collected during the J1 experiment exhibited higher concentration of Pb and Zn, although the mean Zn reached maximum during the F2 measurement, as opposite to Pb, indicating the contribution of different emission sources (Fig. 2). On the other hand, these elements were positively correlated (r = 0.93, p < 0.05) during the whole sampling period. The largest variation in Zn concentrations in snow samples was found between J1 and F2 snow events and might be explained by differences in the prevailing wind direction (N-NE vs. S-SE, respectively) and temperature values (−6.6 vs.−0.4 °C, respectively), as shown in Table 1.Fig. 2


Trace element distribution in the snow cover from an urban area in central Poland.

Siudek P, Frankowski M, Siepak J - Environ Monit Assess (2015)

Intra-seasonal variation in trace metal/metalloid concentration in the urban snow cover from Poznań in 2013
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383824&req=5

Fig2: Intra-seasonal variation in trace metal/metalloid concentration in the urban snow cover from Poznań in 2013
Mentions: Figure 2 illustrates variation of trace element concentrations in the shallow snow cover collected in Poznań during the 3-month field campaigns. In general, maximum concentration of individual species did not occur during the same snow events, suggesting a difference in the conditions of the snow cover formation, industrial activities, air mass transport, and fluctuations in air temperature. High variability in As concentrations was found in March (M1 and M3), whereas the lowest value occurred in February (F1). Intra-seasonal variation in the median As concentration was not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Snow samples collected during the J1 experiment exhibited higher concentration of Pb and Zn, although the mean Zn reached maximum during the F2 measurement, as opposite to Pb, indicating the contribution of different emission sources (Fig. 2). On the other hand, these elements were positively correlated (r = 0.93, p < 0.05) during the whole sampling period. The largest variation in Zn concentrations in snow samples was found between J1 and F2 snow events and might be explained by differences in the prevailing wind direction (N-NE vs. S-SE, respectively) and temperature values (−6.6 vs.−0.4 °C, respectively), as shown in Table 1.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: This work presents the first results from winter field campaigns focusing on trace metals and metalloid chemistry in the snow cover from an urbanized region in central Poland.The highest concentration (in μg L(-1)) was reported for Pb (34.90), followed by Ni (31.37), Zn (31.00), Cu (13.71), Cr (2.36), As (1.58), and Cd (0.25).In addition, several major anthropogenic sources were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA), among which the most significant was the activity of industry and coal combustion for residential heating.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Water and Soil Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89b Street, 61-614, Poznań, Poland, pat.s@amu.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
This work presents the first results from winter field campaigns focusing on trace metals and metalloid chemistry in the snow cover from an urbanized region in central Poland. Samples were collected between January and March 2013 and trace element concentrations were determined using GF-AAS. A large inter-seasonal variability depending on anthropogenic emission, depositional processes, and meteorological conditions was observed. The highest concentration (in μg L(-1)) was reported for Pb (34.90), followed by Ni (31.37), Zn (31.00), Cu (13.71), Cr (2.36), As (1.58), and Cd (0.25). In addition, several major anthropogenic sources were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA), among which the most significant was the activity of industry and coal combustion for residential heating. It was stated that elevated concentrations of some trace metals in snow samples were associated with frequent occurrence of south and southeast advection of highly polluted air masses toward the sampling site, suggesting a large impact of regional urban/industrial pollution plumes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus