Limits...
Iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, zinc and arsenic groundwater contents of Agbor and Owa communities of Nigeria.

Oyem HH, Oyem IM, Usese AI - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: However, the quality of this water source is not immediately known, raising questions of its safety.Four conclusions are drawn from this study.More individual sampling, however, is recommended.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrated Science, College of Education, Agbor, , PMB 2090, Delta State Nigeria ; School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle, , NE1 7RU, , United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium, and chromium heavy metals and arsenic contents of groundwater in area and surrounding environment, of Ika land in the Delta state, Nigeria was studied. Groundwater without any treatment is the predominant source of drinking water by inhabitants of these communities. However, the quality of this water source is not immediately known, raising questions of its safety. Results of a regional composite of groundwater obtained, shows high iron (27%) and zinc (36%) contents in Boji-Boji Agbor area, manganese (31%) was highest in Boji-Boji Owa. Alihame recorded the lowest value of zinc (8%), while manganese was lowest in Agbor Obi area (12%). Arsenic, cadmium, and chromium were below detection limit in all the sample sites. Correlational matrix analysis revealed no significant relationships between metal types studied. Analyses of chronic daily dose intake (CDI), and hazard index were all very low. A hazard index of 0.01 was obtained. One-way ANOVA show significant statistical difference in the mean concentrations of the heavy metals for the different sample sites, which indicate that different sites contribute differently to the mean concentrations of the groundwater in the study area. Four conclusions are drawn from this study. Indications are that the heavy metals present in the Nigerian aquifer are very much below the maximum concentration levels and guideline values of national and WHO standards. Secondly, there is a heavier load of these metals in the city centre than in the suburbs; with Boji-Boji area Agbor/Owa urban areas accounting for 27 and 20 percent of load respectively. Thirdly, the below detection limit results for some of the metal ions and the very low concentrations of those detected are pointers to the absence of industrial activities and mining. Finally, the groundwater in the study area is considered to be generally safe with respect to the contaminants studied and results posted for the composite samples. Inhabitants are therefore under no illusion of immediate or remote health challenges with regards to the heavy metals analyzed. More individual sampling, however, is recommended.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of Delta State Nigeria showing sample sites. Source: Department of Land Information Systems, Ministry of Lands Surveys and Urban Development, Asaba Delta State.
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Fig1: Map of Delta State Nigeria showing sample sites. Source: Department of Land Information Systems, Ministry of Lands Surveys and Urban Development, Asaba Delta State.

Mentions: The study area (Agbor/Owa town commonly referred to as Boji-Boji) found within longitudes 6°- 6° 30’ E and latitudes 6°- 6° 45’ N, was mapped out in to five (5) sub-areas of Agbor Obi, Boji-Boji Agbor, Boji-Boji Owa, Alihame, and Owa Alero (see Figure 1).Figure 1


Iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, zinc and arsenic groundwater contents of Agbor and Owa communities of Nigeria.

Oyem HH, Oyem IM, Usese AI - Springerplus (2015)

Map of Delta State Nigeria showing sample sites. Source: Department of Land Information Systems, Ministry of Lands Surveys and Urban Development, Asaba Delta State.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383748&req=5

Fig1: Map of Delta State Nigeria showing sample sites. Source: Department of Land Information Systems, Ministry of Lands Surveys and Urban Development, Asaba Delta State.
Mentions: The study area (Agbor/Owa town commonly referred to as Boji-Boji) found within longitudes 6°- 6° 30’ E and latitudes 6°- 6° 45’ N, was mapped out in to five (5) sub-areas of Agbor Obi, Boji-Boji Agbor, Boji-Boji Owa, Alihame, and Owa Alero (see Figure 1).Figure 1

Bottom Line: However, the quality of this water source is not immediately known, raising questions of its safety.Four conclusions are drawn from this study.More individual sampling, however, is recommended.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrated Science, College of Education, Agbor, , PMB 2090, Delta State Nigeria ; School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, Newcastle, , NE1 7RU, , United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium, and chromium heavy metals and arsenic contents of groundwater in area and surrounding environment, of Ika land in the Delta state, Nigeria was studied. Groundwater without any treatment is the predominant source of drinking water by inhabitants of these communities. However, the quality of this water source is not immediately known, raising questions of its safety. Results of a regional composite of groundwater obtained, shows high iron (27%) and zinc (36%) contents in Boji-Boji Agbor area, manganese (31%) was highest in Boji-Boji Owa. Alihame recorded the lowest value of zinc (8%), while manganese was lowest in Agbor Obi area (12%). Arsenic, cadmium, and chromium were below detection limit in all the sample sites. Correlational matrix analysis revealed no significant relationships between metal types studied. Analyses of chronic daily dose intake (CDI), and hazard index were all very low. A hazard index of 0.01 was obtained. One-way ANOVA show significant statistical difference in the mean concentrations of the heavy metals for the different sample sites, which indicate that different sites contribute differently to the mean concentrations of the groundwater in the study area. Four conclusions are drawn from this study. Indications are that the heavy metals present in the Nigerian aquifer are very much below the maximum concentration levels and guideline values of national and WHO standards. Secondly, there is a heavier load of these metals in the city centre than in the suburbs; with Boji-Boji area Agbor/Owa urban areas accounting for 27 and 20 percent of load respectively. Thirdly, the below detection limit results for some of the metal ions and the very low concentrations of those detected are pointers to the absence of industrial activities and mining. Finally, the groundwater in the study area is considered to be generally safe with respect to the contaminants studied and results posted for the composite samples. Inhabitants are therefore under no illusion of immediate or remote health challenges with regards to the heavy metals analyzed. More individual sampling, however, is recommended.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus