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Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

Wang Q, Wu X, Zhao B, Qin J, Peng T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season.The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest.Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Yuxi Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences on Plateau Lakes, Yuxi Normal University, Yuxi, Yunnan Province, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

No MeSH data available.


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Temporal Variation of WPI in each Sampling Sites In The Shanchong River Basin.
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pone.0118590.g002: Temporal Variation of WPI in each Sampling Sites In The Shanchong River Basin.

Mentions: Fig. 2 shows the temporal variation of WPI in each sampling site. A key finding is that the WPI of TN is almost the highest of all sites in all field surveys. It indicates that nitrogen pollution is more serious than phosphorus pollution at Shanchong river basin. The reason may be the soil phosphorus content, the excess fertilization and proportion of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus fertilizer used at our research area. The research from B.Lars, et al showed that the leaching of nitrate increased sharply when the use of nitrogen fertilizer exceed 100 kg/ha[40]. There are about 190 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer applied at Yuxi district where Shanchong river basin locates [41]. Therefore, leaching of nitrate may increase substantially at our research area. Another long term research showed that leaching of phosphorus linear increased when soil's available phosphorus content exceeds 60 mg/kg soil[42]. Therefore, the leaching of phosphorus was moderate at our research area because the soil's available phosphorus content are between 1.6–40.7mg/kg soil in this area[37]. According to the Yunnan statistical yearbook 2013[41], the proportion of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus fertilizer is 5:1 at Yuxi district[37], this may be another reason that nitrogen pollution excess the phosphorus at our study area.


Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

Wang Q, Wu X, Zhao B, Qin J, Peng T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Temporal Variation of WPI in each Sampling Sites In The Shanchong River Basin.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383595&req=5

pone.0118590.g002: Temporal Variation of WPI in each Sampling Sites In The Shanchong River Basin.
Mentions: Fig. 2 shows the temporal variation of WPI in each sampling site. A key finding is that the WPI of TN is almost the highest of all sites in all field surveys. It indicates that nitrogen pollution is more serious than phosphorus pollution at Shanchong river basin. The reason may be the soil phosphorus content, the excess fertilization and proportion of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus fertilizer used at our research area. The research from B.Lars, et al showed that the leaching of nitrate increased sharply when the use of nitrogen fertilizer exceed 100 kg/ha[40]. There are about 190 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer applied at Yuxi district where Shanchong river basin locates [41]. Therefore, leaching of nitrate may increase substantially at our research area. Another long term research showed that leaching of phosphorus linear increased when soil's available phosphorus content exceeds 60 mg/kg soil[42]. Therefore, the leaching of phosphorus was moderate at our research area because the soil's available phosphorus content are between 1.6–40.7mg/kg soil in this area[37]. According to the Yunnan statistical yearbook 2013[41], the proportion of nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus fertilizer is 5:1 at Yuxi district[37], this may be another reason that nitrogen pollution excess the phosphorus at our study area.

Bottom Line: The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season.The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest.Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Yuxi Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences on Plateau Lakes, Yuxi Normal University, Yuxi, Yunnan Province, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus