Limits...
A comparison of corn (Zea mays L.) residue and its biochar on soil C and plant growth.

Calderón FJ, Benjamin J, Vigil MF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass.With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments.Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-ARS, 40335 Co Rd GG., Central Great Plains Research Station, Akron, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In order to properly determine the value of charring crop residues, the C use efficiency and effects on crop performance of biochar needs to be compared to the un-charred crop residues. In this study we compared the addition of corn stalks to soil, with equivalent additions of charred (300 °C and 500 °C) corn residues. Two experiments were conducted: a long term laboratory mineralization, and a growth chamber trial with proso millet plants. In the laboratory, we measured soil mineral N dynamics, C use efficiency, and soil organic matter (SOM) chemical changes via infrared spectroscopy. The 300 °C biochar decreased plant biomass relative to a nothing added control. The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass. With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments. Corn stalks had a C sequestration use efficiency of up to 0.26, but charring enhanced C sequestration to values that ranged from 0.64 to 1.0. Infrared spectroscopy of the soils as they mineralized showed that absorbance at 3400, 2925-2850, 1737 cm-1, and 1656 cm-1 decreased during the incubation and can be regarded as labile SOM, corn residue, or biochar bands. Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties. Our results show that adding crop residue biochar to soil is a sound C sequestration technology compared to letting the crop residues decompose in the field. This is because the resistance to decomposition of the chars after soil amendment offsets any C losses during charring of the crop residues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Soil C dynamics during the incubation of the low-erosion (dashed lines) and high-erosion soils (solid lines).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383588&req=5

pone.0121006.g003: Soil C dynamics during the incubation of the low-erosion (dashed lines) and high-erosion soils (solid lines).

Mentions: The soil C had significant incubation time and biochar amendment main effects in both soils according to ANOVA (p> 0.001). Over the 48 week incubation the soil C declined by 13.7% in the high-erosion soils and by 16.2% in the low-erosion soils (Table 5). In both low and high-erosion soils, mean separations shows that total C in weeks 0 and 6 are significantly higher than weeks 14 and 20, which in turn are significantly higher than week 48 (p< 0.05) (Fig 3). Duncan’s Multiple Range tests shows that total soil C in the biochar treatments are significantly different from each other in both soils: 300 °C > (500 °C, Stalk) > Control.


A comparison of corn (Zea mays L.) residue and its biochar on soil C and plant growth.

Calderón FJ, Benjamin J, Vigil MF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Soil C dynamics during the incubation of the low-erosion (dashed lines) and high-erosion soils (solid lines).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383588&req=5

pone.0121006.g003: Soil C dynamics during the incubation of the low-erosion (dashed lines) and high-erosion soils (solid lines).
Mentions: The soil C had significant incubation time and biochar amendment main effects in both soils according to ANOVA (p> 0.001). Over the 48 week incubation the soil C declined by 13.7% in the high-erosion soils and by 16.2% in the low-erosion soils (Table 5). In both low and high-erosion soils, mean separations shows that total C in weeks 0 and 6 are significantly higher than weeks 14 and 20, which in turn are significantly higher than week 48 (p< 0.05) (Fig 3). Duncan’s Multiple Range tests shows that total soil C in the biochar treatments are significantly different from each other in both soils: 300 °C > (500 °C, Stalk) > Control.

Bottom Line: The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass.With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments.Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-ARS, 40335 Co Rd GG., Central Great Plains Research Station, Akron, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In order to properly determine the value of charring crop residues, the C use efficiency and effects on crop performance of biochar needs to be compared to the un-charred crop residues. In this study we compared the addition of corn stalks to soil, with equivalent additions of charred (300 °C and 500 °C) corn residues. Two experiments were conducted: a long term laboratory mineralization, and a growth chamber trial with proso millet plants. In the laboratory, we measured soil mineral N dynamics, C use efficiency, and soil organic matter (SOM) chemical changes via infrared spectroscopy. The 300 °C biochar decreased plant biomass relative to a nothing added control. The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass. With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments. Corn stalks had a C sequestration use efficiency of up to 0.26, but charring enhanced C sequestration to values that ranged from 0.64 to 1.0. Infrared spectroscopy of the soils as they mineralized showed that absorbance at 3400, 2925-2850, 1737 cm-1, and 1656 cm-1 decreased during the incubation and can be regarded as labile SOM, corn residue, or biochar bands. Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties. Our results show that adding crop residue biochar to soil is a sound C sequestration technology compared to letting the crop residues decompose in the field. This is because the resistance to decomposition of the chars after soil amendment offsets any C losses during charring of the crop residues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus