Limits...
A comparison of corn (Zea mays L.) residue and its biochar on soil C and plant growth.

Calderón FJ, Benjamin J, Vigil MF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass.With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments.Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-ARS, 40335 Co Rd GG., Central Great Plains Research Station, Akron, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In order to properly determine the value of charring crop residues, the C use efficiency and effects on crop performance of biochar needs to be compared to the un-charred crop residues. In this study we compared the addition of corn stalks to soil, with equivalent additions of charred (300 °C and 500 °C) corn residues. Two experiments were conducted: a long term laboratory mineralization, and a growth chamber trial with proso millet plants. In the laboratory, we measured soil mineral N dynamics, C use efficiency, and soil organic matter (SOM) chemical changes via infrared spectroscopy. The 300 °C biochar decreased plant biomass relative to a nothing added control. The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass. With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments. Corn stalks had a C sequestration use efficiency of up to 0.26, but charring enhanced C sequestration to values that ranged from 0.64 to 1.0. Infrared spectroscopy of the soils as they mineralized showed that absorbance at 3400, 2925-2850, 1737 cm-1, and 1656 cm-1 decreased during the incubation and can be regarded as labile SOM, corn residue, or biochar bands. Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties. Our results show that adding crop residue biochar to soil is a sound C sequestration technology compared to letting the crop residues decompose in the field. This is because the resistance to decomposition of the chars after soil amendment offsets any C losses during charring of the crop residues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Average spectra of the corn stalks, 300 degree char, and 500 degree char. wn = wavenumbers in cm-1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383588&req=5

pone.0121006.g001: Average spectra of the corn stalks, 300 degree char, and 500 degree char. wn = wavenumbers in cm-1.

Mentions: Both the percent C and percent N content of the corn feedstock increased as it was charred, but proportionately more C than N was lost, resulting in biochars with lower C to N ratio relative to the feedstock. The corn stalks had a percent C, percent N, and C to N ratio of 43.3%, 0.91%, and 47.5 respectively. The 300 °C biochar had values of 57.9%, 1.5%, and 39.7. The 500 °C biochar had values of 69.8%, 1.6% and 43.9 respectively. Fig 1 shows the DRIFTS spectra of the stalk feedstock and the biochars produced from it. All biochar functional group assignments are as in Parikh et al. [6]. The charring at 300 °C resulted in the loss of oxygen containing functional groups like OH/NH (3420 cm-1) and C = O (1740 cm-1). The 300 °C biochar has a aromatic carbonyl/carboxyl C = O peak at 1705 cm-1 that was absent in the corn feedstock. The 500 °C charring further removed aliphatic CH absorbance (2920 cm-1), phenolic C-O (1255 cm-1) and polysaccharide C-O (1130 cm-1). The bands at 3050 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1 mark the presence of aromatic CH and OH created between 300 and 500 °C.


A comparison of corn (Zea mays L.) residue and its biochar on soil C and plant growth.

Calderón FJ, Benjamin J, Vigil MF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Average spectra of the corn stalks, 300 degree char, and 500 degree char. wn = wavenumbers in cm-1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383588&req=5

pone.0121006.g001: Average spectra of the corn stalks, 300 degree char, and 500 degree char. wn = wavenumbers in cm-1.
Mentions: Both the percent C and percent N content of the corn feedstock increased as it was charred, but proportionately more C than N was lost, resulting in biochars with lower C to N ratio relative to the feedstock. The corn stalks had a percent C, percent N, and C to N ratio of 43.3%, 0.91%, and 47.5 respectively. The 300 °C biochar had values of 57.9%, 1.5%, and 39.7. The 500 °C biochar had values of 69.8%, 1.6% and 43.9 respectively. Fig 1 shows the DRIFTS spectra of the stalk feedstock and the biochars produced from it. All biochar functional group assignments are as in Parikh et al. [6]. The charring at 300 °C resulted in the loss of oxygen containing functional groups like OH/NH (3420 cm-1) and C = O (1740 cm-1). The 300 °C biochar has a aromatic carbonyl/carboxyl C = O peak at 1705 cm-1 that was absent in the corn feedstock. The 500 °C charring further removed aliphatic CH absorbance (2920 cm-1), phenolic C-O (1255 cm-1) and polysaccharide C-O (1130 cm-1). The bands at 3050 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1 mark the presence of aromatic CH and OH created between 300 and 500 °C.

Bottom Line: The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass.With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments.Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-ARS, 40335 Co Rd GG., Central Great Plains Research Station, Akron, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In order to properly determine the value of charring crop residues, the C use efficiency and effects on crop performance of biochar needs to be compared to the un-charred crop residues. In this study we compared the addition of corn stalks to soil, with equivalent additions of charred (300 °C and 500 °C) corn residues. Two experiments were conducted: a long term laboratory mineralization, and a growth chamber trial with proso millet plants. In the laboratory, we measured soil mineral N dynamics, C use efficiency, and soil organic matter (SOM) chemical changes via infrared spectroscopy. The 300 °C biochar decreased plant biomass relative to a nothing added control. The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass. With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments. Corn stalks had a C sequestration use efficiency of up to 0.26, but charring enhanced C sequestration to values that ranged from 0.64 to 1.0. Infrared spectroscopy of the soils as they mineralized showed that absorbance at 3400, 2925-2850, 1737 cm-1, and 1656 cm-1 decreased during the incubation and can be regarded as labile SOM, corn residue, or biochar bands. Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties. Our results show that adding crop residue biochar to soil is a sound C sequestration technology compared to letting the crop residues decompose in the field. This is because the resistance to decomposition of the chars after soil amendment offsets any C losses during charring of the crop residues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus