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Spermine alleviates drought stress in white clover with different resistance by influencing carbohydrate metabolism and dehydrins synthesis.

Li Z, Jing W, Peng Y, Zhang XQ, Ma X, Huang LK, Yan YH - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The results show that the application of Spm effectively alleviates negative effects caused by drought stress in both cultivars.Spm induced a significant increase in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, but decrease in sucrose synthetase (SS) activity when two cultivars were subjected to drought.Thus, these results suggest that ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied Spm may be associated with increased carbohydrate accumulation and dehydrins synthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this research was to analyse whether ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied spermine (Spm) was related to carbohydrate metabolism, dehydrins accumulation and the transcription of genes encoding dehydrins in two white clovers (drought-susceptible cv. 'Ladino' and drought-resistant cv. 'Haifa') under controlled drying conditions for 10 days. The results show that the application of Spm effectively alleviates negative effects caused by drought stress in both cultivars. Exogenous Spm led to accumulation of more water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), sucrose, fructose and sorbitol in both cultivars under drought stress, and also significantly elevated glucose content in leaves of drought-resistant cv. 'Haifa', but had no effect on drought-susceptible cv. 'Ladino'. Accordingly, the key enzyme activities of sucrose and sorbitol metabolism changed along with the application of Spm under drought stress. Spm induced a significant increase in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, but decrease in sucrose synthetase (SS) activity when two cultivars were subjected to drought. In addition, the improved accumulation of dehydrins induced by exogenous Spm coincided with three genes expression which was responsible for dehydrins synthesis. But Spm-induced transcript level of dehydrin genes increased earlier in cv. 'Ladino' than that in cv. 'Haifa'. Thus, these results suggest that ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied Spm may be associated with increased carbohydrate accumulation and dehydrins synthesis. There are differences between drought-susceptible and -resistant white clover cultivars related to Spm regulation of WSC metabolism and dehydrins expression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of exogenous spermine (Spm) on (A) total chlorophyll, (B) chlorophyll a and (C) chlorophyll b content in leaves of white clover under drought stress.Vertical bars indicate ±SE of mean (n = 4). Different letters above columns indicate significant difference for comparison at a given day; the same number of asterisks above columns means significant differences for a particular treatment across days of drought stress don’t exist. LSD (P≤0.05). L, cv. ‘Ladino’; L+Spm, cv. ‘Ladino’ added exogenous Spm; H, cv. ‘Haifa’, H+Spm, cv. ‘Haifa’ added exogenous Spm.
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pone.0120708.g003: The effect of exogenous spermine (Spm) on (A) total chlorophyll, (B) chlorophyll a and (C) chlorophyll b content in leaves of white clover under drought stress.Vertical bars indicate ±SE of mean (n = 4). Different letters above columns indicate significant difference for comparison at a given day; the same number of asterisks above columns means significant differences for a particular treatment across days of drought stress don’t exist. LSD (P≤0.05). L, cv. ‘Ladino’; L+Spm, cv. ‘Ladino’ added exogenous Spm; H, cv. ‘Haifa’, H+Spm, cv. ‘Haifa’ added exogenous Spm.

Mentions: Phenotypic responses of two white clover cultivars under drought stress were showed as Fig. 1. Spm-treated plants (L+Spm or H+Spm) stayed green and turgid as compared to untreated plants (L or H) under the same duration of drought stress. Leaf RWC was not significantly different among four treatments at the initiation of drought stress. RWC decreased gradually in response to drought stress in both cultivars, but RWC in ‘L+Spm’ treatment was maintained at a significantly higher level than that in ‘L’ treatment at 5 and 10 d of drought stress. At the last day of drought stress, ‘H+Spm’ treatment also showed a 24% higher RWC than ‘H’ treatment with a measurable significant difference (Fig. 2A). Drought stress caused steep rise of EL and MDA content in leaves of both cultivars, but exogenous Spm effectively reduced the increase trend of EL and MDA (Fig. 2B,C). During drought stress, ‘H’ showed significant lower EL and MDA content as compared to ‘L’. At 5 and 10 d of drought stress, EL level in ‘L’ or ‘H’ was 1.2 times greater than that in ‘L+Spm’ or ‘H+Spm’; on the contrary, ‘L+Spm’ or ‘H+Spm’ exhibited 100% or 55% lower MDA content than ‘L’ or ‘H’ at 5 and 10 d of drought stress, respectively, which showed significant differences (Fig. 2B,C). Progressive drought stress induced significant decline of Chl content in white clover cultivars (Fig. 3). Chl a content of Spm-treated plants (‘L+Spm’ or ‘H+Spm’) was significantly higher than that of non-treated plants (‘L’ or ‘H’) under drought stress, and Chl b content was 53% and 40% percent higher in ‘L+Spm’ than that in ‘L’ at 5 and 10 d of drought stress, respectively; this percentage was only 28% and 14% for ‘H+Spm’ comparing with ‘H’ (Fig. 3B,C). As a result, Spm-treated plants showed significantly higher total Chl content throughout the drought stress as compared to non-treated plants (Fig. 3A).


Spermine alleviates drought stress in white clover with different resistance by influencing carbohydrate metabolism and dehydrins synthesis.

Li Z, Jing W, Peng Y, Zhang XQ, Ma X, Huang LK, Yan YH - PLoS ONE (2015)

The effect of exogenous spermine (Spm) on (A) total chlorophyll, (B) chlorophyll a and (C) chlorophyll b content in leaves of white clover under drought stress.Vertical bars indicate ±SE of mean (n = 4). Different letters above columns indicate significant difference for comparison at a given day; the same number of asterisks above columns means significant differences for a particular treatment across days of drought stress don’t exist. LSD (P≤0.05). L, cv. ‘Ladino’; L+Spm, cv. ‘Ladino’ added exogenous Spm; H, cv. ‘Haifa’, H+Spm, cv. ‘Haifa’ added exogenous Spm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383584&req=5

pone.0120708.g003: The effect of exogenous spermine (Spm) on (A) total chlorophyll, (B) chlorophyll a and (C) chlorophyll b content in leaves of white clover under drought stress.Vertical bars indicate ±SE of mean (n = 4). Different letters above columns indicate significant difference for comparison at a given day; the same number of asterisks above columns means significant differences for a particular treatment across days of drought stress don’t exist. LSD (P≤0.05). L, cv. ‘Ladino’; L+Spm, cv. ‘Ladino’ added exogenous Spm; H, cv. ‘Haifa’, H+Spm, cv. ‘Haifa’ added exogenous Spm.
Mentions: Phenotypic responses of two white clover cultivars under drought stress were showed as Fig. 1. Spm-treated plants (L+Spm or H+Spm) stayed green and turgid as compared to untreated plants (L or H) under the same duration of drought stress. Leaf RWC was not significantly different among four treatments at the initiation of drought stress. RWC decreased gradually in response to drought stress in both cultivars, but RWC in ‘L+Spm’ treatment was maintained at a significantly higher level than that in ‘L’ treatment at 5 and 10 d of drought stress. At the last day of drought stress, ‘H+Spm’ treatment also showed a 24% higher RWC than ‘H’ treatment with a measurable significant difference (Fig. 2A). Drought stress caused steep rise of EL and MDA content in leaves of both cultivars, but exogenous Spm effectively reduced the increase trend of EL and MDA (Fig. 2B,C). During drought stress, ‘H’ showed significant lower EL and MDA content as compared to ‘L’. At 5 and 10 d of drought stress, EL level in ‘L’ or ‘H’ was 1.2 times greater than that in ‘L+Spm’ or ‘H+Spm’; on the contrary, ‘L+Spm’ or ‘H+Spm’ exhibited 100% or 55% lower MDA content than ‘L’ or ‘H’ at 5 and 10 d of drought stress, respectively, which showed significant differences (Fig. 2B,C). Progressive drought stress induced significant decline of Chl content in white clover cultivars (Fig. 3). Chl a content of Spm-treated plants (‘L+Spm’ or ‘H+Spm’) was significantly higher than that of non-treated plants (‘L’ or ‘H’) under drought stress, and Chl b content was 53% and 40% percent higher in ‘L+Spm’ than that in ‘L’ at 5 and 10 d of drought stress, respectively; this percentage was only 28% and 14% for ‘H+Spm’ comparing with ‘H’ (Fig. 3B,C). As a result, Spm-treated plants showed significantly higher total Chl content throughout the drought stress as compared to non-treated plants (Fig. 3A).

Bottom Line: The results show that the application of Spm effectively alleviates negative effects caused by drought stress in both cultivars.Spm induced a significant increase in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, but decrease in sucrose synthetase (SS) activity when two cultivars were subjected to drought.Thus, these results suggest that ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied Spm may be associated with increased carbohydrate accumulation and dehydrins synthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this research was to analyse whether ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied spermine (Spm) was related to carbohydrate metabolism, dehydrins accumulation and the transcription of genes encoding dehydrins in two white clovers (drought-susceptible cv. 'Ladino' and drought-resistant cv. 'Haifa') under controlled drying conditions for 10 days. The results show that the application of Spm effectively alleviates negative effects caused by drought stress in both cultivars. Exogenous Spm led to accumulation of more water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), sucrose, fructose and sorbitol in both cultivars under drought stress, and also significantly elevated glucose content in leaves of drought-resistant cv. 'Haifa', but had no effect on drought-susceptible cv. 'Ladino'. Accordingly, the key enzyme activities of sucrose and sorbitol metabolism changed along with the application of Spm under drought stress. Spm induced a significant increase in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, but decrease in sucrose synthetase (SS) activity when two cultivars were subjected to drought. In addition, the improved accumulation of dehydrins induced by exogenous Spm coincided with three genes expression which was responsible for dehydrins synthesis. But Spm-induced transcript level of dehydrin genes increased earlier in cv. 'Ladino' than that in cv. 'Haifa'. Thus, these results suggest that ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied Spm may be associated with increased carbohydrate accumulation and dehydrins synthesis. There are differences between drought-susceptible and -resistant white clover cultivars related to Spm regulation of WSC metabolism and dehydrins expression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus