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Seeing the unseen--bioturbation in 4D: tracing bioirrigation in marine sediment using positron emission tomography and computed tomography.

Delefosse M, Kristensen E, Crunelle D, Braad PE, Dam JH, Thisgaard H, Thomassen A, Høilund-Carlsen PF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results show that PET/CT allows more comprehensive studies on ventilation and bioirrigation than possible using techniques traditionally applied in marine ecology.Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior.The lack of accessibility to the expensive equipment is its major drawback which can only be overcome through collaboration among several institutions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of bioirrigation induced by benthic fauna ventilation is critical given its significance on benthic nutrient exchange and biogeochemistry in coastal ecosystems. The quantification of this process challenges marine scientists because faunal activities and behaviors are concealed in an opaque sediment matrix. Here, we use a hybrid medical imaging technique, positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) to provide a qualitative visual and fully quantitative description of bioirrigation in 4D (space and time). As a study case, we present images of porewater advection induced by the well-studied lugworm (Arenicola marina). Our results show that PET/CT allows more comprehensive studies on ventilation and bioirrigation than possible using techniques traditionally applied in marine ecology. We provide a dynamic three-dimensional description of bioirrigation by the lugworm at very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results obtained with the PET/CT are in agreement with literature data on lugworm ventilation and bioirrigation. Major advantages of PET/CT over methods commonly used are its non-invasive and non-destructive approach and its capacity to provide information that otherwise would require multiple methods. Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior. The lack of accessibility to the expensive equipment is its major drawback which can only be overcome through collaboration among several institutions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

3D visualization of lugworm, Arenicola marina, movements within the sediment.Front and side images of 18F injected lugworm, Arenicola marina. The worms were injected with (A) 150 μl and (B) 50 μl of 18F solution and placed at the surface. PET pictures acquired every minute show the burial behavior and speed of the lugworms. The dashed lines indicate the sediment water interface. Front (25 cm) x Side (15 cm).
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pone.0122201.g007: 3D visualization of lugworm, Arenicola marina, movements within the sediment.Front and side images of 18F injected lugworm, Arenicola marina. The worms were injected with (A) 150 μl and (B) 50 μl of 18F solution and placed at the surface. PET pictures acquired every minute show the burial behavior and speed of the lugworms. The dashed lines indicate the sediment water interface. Front (25 cm) x Side (15 cm).

Mentions: Furthermore, Injection of radionuclides directly into burrowing animals opens the possibilities to trace their behavior when hidden inside the substratum. PET can record animal position and movements within sediments at high temporal frequency. Intra- or interspecific interactions among animals can be studied in great detail by injecting different tracers or concentrations into different individuals or species (Fig 7; S4 Movie). The stress effect of injection and toxicity of tracer on the animals should be taken into account, but a pilot study revealed that there is no behavioral and survival effect from injection of 50–150 μl of Na18F (80 MBq diluted in 1 ml) into the coelom of lugworms. This technique could substitute the use of transparent and artificial substratum, like gelatin, to observe the behavior of burrow-dwelling animals [36].


Seeing the unseen--bioturbation in 4D: tracing bioirrigation in marine sediment using positron emission tomography and computed tomography.

Delefosse M, Kristensen E, Crunelle D, Braad PE, Dam JH, Thisgaard H, Thomassen A, Høilund-Carlsen PF - PLoS ONE (2015)

3D visualization of lugworm, Arenicola marina, movements within the sediment.Front and side images of 18F injected lugworm, Arenicola marina. The worms were injected with (A) 150 μl and (B) 50 μl of 18F solution and placed at the surface. PET pictures acquired every minute show the burial behavior and speed of the lugworms. The dashed lines indicate the sediment water interface. Front (25 cm) x Side (15 cm).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383581&req=5

pone.0122201.g007: 3D visualization of lugworm, Arenicola marina, movements within the sediment.Front and side images of 18F injected lugworm, Arenicola marina. The worms were injected with (A) 150 μl and (B) 50 μl of 18F solution and placed at the surface. PET pictures acquired every minute show the burial behavior and speed of the lugworms. The dashed lines indicate the sediment water interface. Front (25 cm) x Side (15 cm).
Mentions: Furthermore, Injection of radionuclides directly into burrowing animals opens the possibilities to trace their behavior when hidden inside the substratum. PET can record animal position and movements within sediments at high temporal frequency. Intra- or interspecific interactions among animals can be studied in great detail by injecting different tracers or concentrations into different individuals or species (Fig 7; S4 Movie). The stress effect of injection and toxicity of tracer on the animals should be taken into account, but a pilot study revealed that there is no behavioral and survival effect from injection of 50–150 μl of Na18F (80 MBq diluted in 1 ml) into the coelom of lugworms. This technique could substitute the use of transparent and artificial substratum, like gelatin, to observe the behavior of burrow-dwelling animals [36].

Bottom Line: Our results show that PET/CT allows more comprehensive studies on ventilation and bioirrigation than possible using techniques traditionally applied in marine ecology.Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior.The lack of accessibility to the expensive equipment is its major drawback which can only be overcome through collaboration among several institutions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of bioirrigation induced by benthic fauna ventilation is critical given its significance on benthic nutrient exchange and biogeochemistry in coastal ecosystems. The quantification of this process challenges marine scientists because faunal activities and behaviors are concealed in an opaque sediment matrix. Here, we use a hybrid medical imaging technique, positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) to provide a qualitative visual and fully quantitative description of bioirrigation in 4D (space and time). As a study case, we present images of porewater advection induced by the well-studied lugworm (Arenicola marina). Our results show that PET/CT allows more comprehensive studies on ventilation and bioirrigation than possible using techniques traditionally applied in marine ecology. We provide a dynamic three-dimensional description of bioirrigation by the lugworm at very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results obtained with the PET/CT are in agreement with literature data on lugworm ventilation and bioirrigation. Major advantages of PET/CT over methods commonly used are its non-invasive and non-destructive approach and its capacity to provide information that otherwise would require multiple methods. Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior. The lack of accessibility to the expensive equipment is its major drawback which can only be overcome through collaboration among several institutions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus