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Seeing the unseen--bioturbation in 4D: tracing bioirrigation in marine sediment using positron emission tomography and computed tomography.

Delefosse M, Kristensen E, Crunelle D, Braad PE, Dam JH, Thisgaard H, Thomassen A, Høilund-Carlsen PF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results show that PET/CT allows more comprehensive studies on ventilation and bioirrigation than possible using techniques traditionally applied in marine ecology.Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior.The lack of accessibility to the expensive equipment is its major drawback which can only be overcome through collaboration among several institutions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of bioirrigation induced by benthic fauna ventilation is critical given its significance on benthic nutrient exchange and biogeochemistry in coastal ecosystems. The quantification of this process challenges marine scientists because faunal activities and behaviors are concealed in an opaque sediment matrix. Here, we use a hybrid medical imaging technique, positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) to provide a qualitative visual and fully quantitative description of bioirrigation in 4D (space and time). As a study case, we present images of porewater advection induced by the well-studied lugworm (Arenicola marina). Our results show that PET/CT allows more comprehensive studies on ventilation and bioirrigation than possible using techniques traditionally applied in marine ecology. We provide a dynamic three-dimensional description of bioirrigation by the lugworm at very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results obtained with the PET/CT are in agreement with literature data on lugworm ventilation and bioirrigation. Major advantages of PET/CT over methods commonly used are its non-invasive and non-destructive approach and its capacity to provide information that otherwise would require multiple methods. Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior. The lack of accessibility to the expensive equipment is its major drawback which can only be overcome through collaboration among several institutions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of ventilation and bio-irrigation in the blind-ended burrow of the lugworm, Arenicola marina.Lugworms ventilate intermittently oxic overlying water into their burrows to survive anoxic conditions. The flow of water passes over the gills of the worm and is subsequently forced (or bioirrigated) into the surrounding sediment. Porewater advection changes the sediment biogeochemistry dramatically. The extent and the scale of this effect depend on the ventilation activity of the animal and the distribution pattern of the irrigated water.
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pone.0122201.g001: Schematic representation of ventilation and bio-irrigation in the blind-ended burrow of the lugworm, Arenicola marina.Lugworms ventilate intermittently oxic overlying water into their burrows to survive anoxic conditions. The flow of water passes over the gills of the worm and is subsequently forced (or bioirrigated) into the surrounding sediment. Porewater advection changes the sediment biogeochemistry dramatically. The extent and the scale of this effect depend on the ventilation activity of the animal and the distribution pattern of the irrigated water.

Mentions: To prove the applicability of PET/CT, we obtained a dynamic 3D visualization of porewater advection induced by the burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina (or lugworm). A. marina typically lives in deep (>15 cm) blind-ended burrows, which are ventilated at a rate of about 1 ml water/min ([13]; Fig 1). The pumping activity and the associated bioirrigation generated by this species have been extensively studied because of its omnipresence in European coastal waters [14]; making it a perfect study object for a comparative methodological study.


Seeing the unseen--bioturbation in 4D: tracing bioirrigation in marine sediment using positron emission tomography and computed tomography.

Delefosse M, Kristensen E, Crunelle D, Braad PE, Dam JH, Thisgaard H, Thomassen A, Høilund-Carlsen PF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Schematic representation of ventilation and bio-irrigation in the blind-ended burrow of the lugworm, Arenicola marina.Lugworms ventilate intermittently oxic overlying water into their burrows to survive anoxic conditions. The flow of water passes over the gills of the worm and is subsequently forced (or bioirrigated) into the surrounding sediment. Porewater advection changes the sediment biogeochemistry dramatically. The extent and the scale of this effect depend on the ventilation activity of the animal and the distribution pattern of the irrigated water.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383581&req=5

pone.0122201.g001: Schematic representation of ventilation and bio-irrigation in the blind-ended burrow of the lugworm, Arenicola marina.Lugworms ventilate intermittently oxic overlying water into their burrows to survive anoxic conditions. The flow of water passes over the gills of the worm and is subsequently forced (or bioirrigated) into the surrounding sediment. Porewater advection changes the sediment biogeochemistry dramatically. The extent and the scale of this effect depend on the ventilation activity of the animal and the distribution pattern of the irrigated water.
Mentions: To prove the applicability of PET/CT, we obtained a dynamic 3D visualization of porewater advection induced by the burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina (or lugworm). A. marina typically lives in deep (>15 cm) blind-ended burrows, which are ventilated at a rate of about 1 ml water/min ([13]; Fig 1). The pumping activity and the associated bioirrigation generated by this species have been extensively studied because of its omnipresence in European coastal waters [14]; making it a perfect study object for a comparative methodological study.

Bottom Line: Our results show that PET/CT allows more comprehensive studies on ventilation and bioirrigation than possible using techniques traditionally applied in marine ecology.Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior.The lack of accessibility to the expensive equipment is its major drawback which can only be overcome through collaboration among several institutions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of bioirrigation induced by benthic fauna ventilation is critical given its significance on benthic nutrient exchange and biogeochemistry in coastal ecosystems. The quantification of this process challenges marine scientists because faunal activities and behaviors are concealed in an opaque sediment matrix. Here, we use a hybrid medical imaging technique, positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) to provide a qualitative visual and fully quantitative description of bioirrigation in 4D (space and time). As a study case, we present images of porewater advection induced by the well-studied lugworm (Arenicola marina). Our results show that PET/CT allows more comprehensive studies on ventilation and bioirrigation than possible using techniques traditionally applied in marine ecology. We provide a dynamic three-dimensional description of bioirrigation by the lugworm at very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results obtained with the PET/CT are in agreement with literature data on lugworm ventilation and bioirrigation. Major advantages of PET/CT over methods commonly used are its non-invasive and non-destructive approach and its capacity to provide information that otherwise would require multiple methods. Furthermore, PET/CT scan is versatile as it can be used for a variety of benthic macrofauna species and sediment types and it provides information on burrow morphology or animal behavior. The lack of accessibility to the expensive equipment is its major drawback which can only be overcome through collaboration among several institutions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus