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High fat diet causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with intestinal permeability.

Johnson AM, Costanzo A, Gareau MG, Armando AM, Quehenberger O, Jameson JM, Olefsky JM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear.Here we show that, unlike liver or adipose tissue, high fat diet (HFD)/obesity in mice does not cause monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the intestine or pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression.Rather HFD causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with the onset of intestinal permeability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The development of intestinal permeability and the penetration of microbial products are key factors associated with the onset of metabolic disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. Here we show that, unlike liver or adipose tissue, high fat diet (HFD)/obesity in mice does not cause monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the intestine or pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression. Rather HFD causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with the onset of intestinal permeability. Intestinal eosinophil numbers were restored by returning HFD fed mice to normal chow and were unchanged in leptin-deficient (Ob/Ob) mice, indicating that eosinophil depletion is caused specifically by a high fat diet and not obesity per se. Analysis of different aspects of intestinal permeability in HFD fed and Ob/Ob mice shows an association between eosinophil depletion and ileal paracelullar permeability, as well as leakage of albumin into the feces, but not overall permeability to FITC dextran. These findings provide the first evidence that a high fat diet causes intestinal eosinophil depletion, rather than inflammation, which may contribute to defective barrier integrity and the onset of metabolic disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Lack of detectable inflammation in the intestine of HFD mice(A) CX3CR1GFP/+ monocytes/macrophages were quantified per villus by immunofluorescence microscopy. Multiple villi were assessed from >30 sections with 3 mice per group. (B) Lamina propria cells were isolated after 1 week or 16 weeks HFD and monocyte populations were analyzed as live, CD45+, CD11b+Ly6C+ cells. Each data point represents an individual mouse from one experiment. (C) The trafficking of adoptively transferred PKH26+ monocytes to the intestine is not enhanced in mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. Representative flow cyometry plots of a control receiving PBS in place of monocytes, normal chow recipient and HFD recipient mice are shown. Bar graph shows from n = 6 mice per group from one experiment. D) Inflammatory gene expression in the small intestinal mucosa of 1 week HFD or normal chow mice. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 (Mann-WhitneyU test). E) Representative H&E histology from the small intestine or colon of 6 week HFD or Low fat diet fed mice. F) Eicosanoid quantification in the ileum of mice fed HFD for one week or maintained on normal chow. Each data point represents an individual mouse from one experiment. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 (One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post test).
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pone.0122195.g002: Lack of detectable inflammation in the intestine of HFD mice(A) CX3CR1GFP/+ monocytes/macrophages were quantified per villus by immunofluorescence microscopy. Multiple villi were assessed from >30 sections with 3 mice per group. (B) Lamina propria cells were isolated after 1 week or 16 weeks HFD and monocyte populations were analyzed as live, CD45+, CD11b+Ly6C+ cells. Each data point represents an individual mouse from one experiment. (C) The trafficking of adoptively transferred PKH26+ monocytes to the intestine is not enhanced in mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. Representative flow cyometry plots of a control receiving PBS in place of monocytes, normal chow recipient and HFD recipient mice are shown. Bar graph shows from n = 6 mice per group from one experiment. D) Inflammatory gene expression in the small intestinal mucosa of 1 week HFD or normal chow mice. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 (Mann-WhitneyU test). E) Representative H&E histology from the small intestine or colon of 6 week HFD or Low fat diet fed mice. F) Eicosanoid quantification in the ileum of mice fed HFD for one week or maintained on normal chow. Each data point represents an individual mouse from one experiment. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 (One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post test).

Mentions: Interestingly, unlike other tissues such as the liver or adipose [28,29,30], there was no evidence of inflammatory monocyte infiltrate or macrophage accumulation in the intestine of HFD mice. Specifically, using CX3CR1GFP+ mice, there was no increase in the number of GFP+ cells per villus in HFD mice (Fig 2A), nor was there an increase in lamina propria CD11b+ Ly6C+ monocytes (Fig 2B). We also measured in vivo monocyte tracking to the intestine by injecting fluorescently-labeled donor monocytes into HFD or chow fed mice and measuring their appearance in the lamina propria 5 days later. Only minimal migration of monocytes to the intestine could be detected (consistent with previously published monocyte tracking studies in leukocyte replete mice [31,32]) and there was no increase in the proportion of labelled monocytes in HFD mice (Fig 2C). Gene expression studies of small intestinal tissue showed no increased expression of CD11b, CD11c or IL-1β genes, but did reveal a decrease in the expression of TNF-α and MCP-1 genes in 7 day HFD mice compared to chow fed controls (Fig 2D). Analysis of the same genes in colon tissue revealed no significant changes in expression between 7 day HFD fed mice and chow fed controls (Fig 2D). Histological analysis of sections of small intestine and colon showed no evidence of pro-inflammatory changes, such as mononuclear cell infiltrate, epithelial hyperplasia or goblet cell depletion (Fig 2E). Lastly, analysis of eicosanoids present in the ileum indicated that PGF1α, 11-HEPE and 7-HDoHE were significantly reduced in HFD mice, whereas PGE2, TxB2 and 12-HETE were significantly increased (Fig 2F). Collectively, these data provides further evidence that, unlike the liver and adipose tissue, widespread inflammation is not a feature of the intestine after HFD feeding.


High fat diet causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with intestinal permeability.

Johnson AM, Costanzo A, Gareau MG, Armando AM, Quehenberger O, Jameson JM, Olefsky JM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Lack of detectable inflammation in the intestine of HFD mice(A) CX3CR1GFP/+ monocytes/macrophages were quantified per villus by immunofluorescence microscopy. Multiple villi were assessed from >30 sections with 3 mice per group. (B) Lamina propria cells were isolated after 1 week or 16 weeks HFD and monocyte populations were analyzed as live, CD45+, CD11b+Ly6C+ cells. Each data point represents an individual mouse from one experiment. (C) The trafficking of adoptively transferred PKH26+ monocytes to the intestine is not enhanced in mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. Representative flow cyometry plots of a control receiving PBS in place of monocytes, normal chow recipient and HFD recipient mice are shown. Bar graph shows from n = 6 mice per group from one experiment. D) Inflammatory gene expression in the small intestinal mucosa of 1 week HFD or normal chow mice. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 (Mann-WhitneyU test). E) Representative H&E histology from the small intestine or colon of 6 week HFD or Low fat diet fed mice. F) Eicosanoid quantification in the ileum of mice fed HFD for one week or maintained on normal chow. Each data point represents an individual mouse from one experiment. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 (One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383570&req=5

pone.0122195.g002: Lack of detectable inflammation in the intestine of HFD mice(A) CX3CR1GFP/+ monocytes/macrophages were quantified per villus by immunofluorescence microscopy. Multiple villi were assessed from >30 sections with 3 mice per group. (B) Lamina propria cells were isolated after 1 week or 16 weeks HFD and monocyte populations were analyzed as live, CD45+, CD11b+Ly6C+ cells. Each data point represents an individual mouse from one experiment. (C) The trafficking of adoptively transferred PKH26+ monocytes to the intestine is not enhanced in mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. Representative flow cyometry plots of a control receiving PBS in place of monocytes, normal chow recipient and HFD recipient mice are shown. Bar graph shows from n = 6 mice per group from one experiment. D) Inflammatory gene expression in the small intestinal mucosa of 1 week HFD or normal chow mice. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 (Mann-WhitneyU test). E) Representative H&E histology from the small intestine or colon of 6 week HFD or Low fat diet fed mice. F) Eicosanoid quantification in the ileum of mice fed HFD for one week or maintained on normal chow. Each data point represents an individual mouse from one experiment. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 (One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post test).
Mentions: Interestingly, unlike other tissues such as the liver or adipose [28,29,30], there was no evidence of inflammatory monocyte infiltrate or macrophage accumulation in the intestine of HFD mice. Specifically, using CX3CR1GFP+ mice, there was no increase in the number of GFP+ cells per villus in HFD mice (Fig 2A), nor was there an increase in lamina propria CD11b+ Ly6C+ monocytes (Fig 2B). We also measured in vivo monocyte tracking to the intestine by injecting fluorescently-labeled donor monocytes into HFD or chow fed mice and measuring their appearance in the lamina propria 5 days later. Only minimal migration of monocytes to the intestine could be detected (consistent with previously published monocyte tracking studies in leukocyte replete mice [31,32]) and there was no increase in the proportion of labelled monocytes in HFD mice (Fig 2C). Gene expression studies of small intestinal tissue showed no increased expression of CD11b, CD11c or IL-1β genes, but did reveal a decrease in the expression of TNF-α and MCP-1 genes in 7 day HFD mice compared to chow fed controls (Fig 2D). Analysis of the same genes in colon tissue revealed no significant changes in expression between 7 day HFD fed mice and chow fed controls (Fig 2D). Histological analysis of sections of small intestine and colon showed no evidence of pro-inflammatory changes, such as mononuclear cell infiltrate, epithelial hyperplasia or goblet cell depletion (Fig 2E). Lastly, analysis of eicosanoids present in the ileum indicated that PGF1α, 11-HEPE and 7-HDoHE were significantly reduced in HFD mice, whereas PGE2, TxB2 and 12-HETE were significantly increased (Fig 2F). Collectively, these data provides further evidence that, unlike the liver and adipose tissue, widespread inflammation is not a feature of the intestine after HFD feeding.

Bottom Line: However, the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear.Here we show that, unlike liver or adipose tissue, high fat diet (HFD)/obesity in mice does not cause monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the intestine or pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression.Rather HFD causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with the onset of intestinal permeability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The development of intestinal permeability and the penetration of microbial products are key factors associated with the onset of metabolic disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. Here we show that, unlike liver or adipose tissue, high fat diet (HFD)/obesity in mice does not cause monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the intestine or pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression. Rather HFD causes depletion of intestinal eosinophils associated with the onset of intestinal permeability. Intestinal eosinophil numbers were restored by returning HFD fed mice to normal chow and were unchanged in leptin-deficient (Ob/Ob) mice, indicating that eosinophil depletion is caused specifically by a high fat diet and not obesity per se. Analysis of different aspects of intestinal permeability in HFD fed and Ob/Ob mice shows an association between eosinophil depletion and ileal paracelullar permeability, as well as leakage of albumin into the feces, but not overall permeability to FITC dextran. These findings provide the first evidence that a high fat diet causes intestinal eosinophil depletion, rather than inflammation, which may contribute to defective barrier integrity and the onset of metabolic disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus