Limits...
Training improves the capacity of visual working memory when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted.

Shin E, Lee H, Yoo SA, Chong SC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The number of distractors and duration of the consolidation period were adjusted individually to increase the task difficulty of the filtering and consolidation training, respectively.Results showed that the degree of improvement shown during the training was positively correlated with the increase in memory capacity, and training-induced benefits were most evident for larger set sizes in the filtering training group.These results suggest that visual working memory training is effective, especially when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Cognitive Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
The current study investigated whether training improves the capacity of visual working memory using individualized adaptive training methods. Two groups of participants were trained for two targeted processes, filtering and consolidation. Before and after the training, the participants, including those with no training, performed a lateralized change detection task in which one side of the visual display had to be selected and the other side ignored. Across ten-day training sessions, the participants performed two modified versions of the lateralized change detection task. The number of distractors and duration of the consolidation period were adjusted individually to increase the task difficulty of the filtering and consolidation training, respectively. Results showed that the degree of improvement shown during the training was positively correlated with the increase in memory capacity, and training-induced benefits were most evident for larger set sizes in the filtering training group. These results suggest that visual working memory training is effective, especially when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted.

No MeSH data available.


Examples of trial sequences in the pretest and posttest (a), the filtering training (b), and the consolidation training (c).The arrows indicate which memory array out of the two sides had to be remembered. The color-filled squares represented the target items to be remembered, and the color-outlined squares the distractor items to be ignored (b). The task was to judge whether the memory array and the test array were the same or different. (b) and (c) show examples of correct answers, same and different, respectively. Finally, the SOA represents the stimulus onset asynchrony, which includes the duration of the memory array.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383536&req=5

pone.0121702.g001: Examples of trial sequences in the pretest and posttest (a), the filtering training (b), and the consolidation training (c).The arrows indicate which memory array out of the two sides had to be remembered. The color-filled squares represented the target items to be remembered, and the color-outlined squares the distractor items to be ignored (b). The task was to judge whether the memory array and the test array were the same or different. (b) and (c) show examples of correct answers, same and different, respectively. Finally, the SOA represents the stimulus onset asynchrony, which includes the duration of the memory array.

Mentions: The current study adopted individually-tailored adaptive training methods with two target processes, filtering and consolidation. A lateralized change detection task with no distractors [16] was used as a test task (Fig 1a). Two modified lateralized change detection tasks [15, 17] were used as training tasks. One training task challenged the participants’ filtering ability by adjusting the number of distractor items presented with target items (Fig 1b). The other task challenged the participants’ consolidation ability by varying the consolidation durations (Fig 1c). The test task has been widely used to estimate VWM capacity [18. 19]. The key feature of this task is that it requires the participant to attend selectively to one side over the other. Thus, a greater transfer of benefit (if any) should arise from the filtering training than from the consolidation training, as the filtering training is likely to improve selective attention, part of the general WM component process, and, in turn, to develop effective encoding and maintenance skills. Instead, the consolidation training is expected to improve quick skills of item registration and consolidation, which are distinct from filtering skills. In this sense, the participants who received the filtering training served as an experimental group, and those who received the consolidation training served as an active control group. As the active control group underwent a procedure and a training time closely matched with those of the experimental group, the existence of this active control group prevented the training results from being inflated in positive directions [20].


Training improves the capacity of visual working memory when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted.

Shin E, Lee H, Yoo SA, Chong SC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Examples of trial sequences in the pretest and posttest (a), the filtering training (b), and the consolidation training (c).The arrows indicate which memory array out of the two sides had to be remembered. The color-filled squares represented the target items to be remembered, and the color-outlined squares the distractor items to be ignored (b). The task was to judge whether the memory array and the test array were the same or different. (b) and (c) show examples of correct answers, same and different, respectively. Finally, the SOA represents the stimulus onset asynchrony, which includes the duration of the memory array.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383536&req=5

pone.0121702.g001: Examples of trial sequences in the pretest and posttest (a), the filtering training (b), and the consolidation training (c).The arrows indicate which memory array out of the two sides had to be remembered. The color-filled squares represented the target items to be remembered, and the color-outlined squares the distractor items to be ignored (b). The task was to judge whether the memory array and the test array were the same or different. (b) and (c) show examples of correct answers, same and different, respectively. Finally, the SOA represents the stimulus onset asynchrony, which includes the duration of the memory array.
Mentions: The current study adopted individually-tailored adaptive training methods with two target processes, filtering and consolidation. A lateralized change detection task with no distractors [16] was used as a test task (Fig 1a). Two modified lateralized change detection tasks [15, 17] were used as training tasks. One training task challenged the participants’ filtering ability by adjusting the number of distractor items presented with target items (Fig 1b). The other task challenged the participants’ consolidation ability by varying the consolidation durations (Fig 1c). The test task has been widely used to estimate VWM capacity [18. 19]. The key feature of this task is that it requires the participant to attend selectively to one side over the other. Thus, a greater transfer of benefit (if any) should arise from the filtering training than from the consolidation training, as the filtering training is likely to improve selective attention, part of the general WM component process, and, in turn, to develop effective encoding and maintenance skills. Instead, the consolidation training is expected to improve quick skills of item registration and consolidation, which are distinct from filtering skills. In this sense, the participants who received the filtering training served as an experimental group, and those who received the consolidation training served as an active control group. As the active control group underwent a procedure and a training time closely matched with those of the experimental group, the existence of this active control group prevented the training results from being inflated in positive directions [20].

Bottom Line: The number of distractors and duration of the consolidation period were adjusted individually to increase the task difficulty of the filtering and consolidation training, respectively.Results showed that the degree of improvement shown during the training was positively correlated with the increase in memory capacity, and training-induced benefits were most evident for larger set sizes in the filtering training group.These results suggest that visual working memory training is effective, especially when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Cognitive Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
The current study investigated whether training improves the capacity of visual working memory using individualized adaptive training methods. Two groups of participants were trained for two targeted processes, filtering and consolidation. Before and after the training, the participants, including those with no training, performed a lateralized change detection task in which one side of the visual display had to be selected and the other side ignored. Across ten-day training sessions, the participants performed two modified versions of the lateralized change detection task. The number of distractors and duration of the consolidation period were adjusted individually to increase the task difficulty of the filtering and consolidation training, respectively. Results showed that the degree of improvement shown during the training was positively correlated with the increase in memory capacity, and training-induced benefits were most evident for larger set sizes in the filtering training group. These results suggest that visual working memory training is effective, especially when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted.

No MeSH data available.