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Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

Shoji JY, Charlton ND, Yi M, Young CA, Craven KD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses.Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits.However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Plant Biology Division, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

No MeSH data available.


Vegetative hyphal fusion of E. festucae E2368 grown in culture establishing cytoplasmic continuity.Confocal micrographs showing DIC optics, mitochondria (A) or vacuoles (B), CFW staining, and overlaid images. Arrowheads indicate fusion bridges through which organelles extend into a neighboring compartment. Bars represent 10 μm.
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pone.0121875.g002: Vegetative hyphal fusion of E. festucae E2368 grown in culture establishing cytoplasmic continuity.Confocal micrographs showing DIC optics, mitochondria (A) or vacuoles (B), CFW staining, and overlaid images. Arrowheads indicate fusion bridges through which organelles extend into a neighboring compartment. Bars represent 10 μm.

Mentions: Simultaneous staining of cell walls and either mitochondria or vacuoles of mycelia in culture revealed that both organelles are capable of passing through hyphal fusion pores to a neighboring compartment (Fig 2). This indicates that cytoplasmic continuity is established by VHF to allow passage of organelles, probably along with microtubules that serve as a scaffold for these organelles [53], [59].


Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

Shoji JY, Charlton ND, Yi M, Young CA, Craven KD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Vegetative hyphal fusion of E. festucae E2368 grown in culture establishing cytoplasmic continuity.Confocal micrographs showing DIC optics, mitochondria (A) or vacuoles (B), CFW staining, and overlaid images. Arrowheads indicate fusion bridges through which organelles extend into a neighboring compartment. Bars represent 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383479&req=5

pone.0121875.g002: Vegetative hyphal fusion of E. festucae E2368 grown in culture establishing cytoplasmic continuity.Confocal micrographs showing DIC optics, mitochondria (A) or vacuoles (B), CFW staining, and overlaid images. Arrowheads indicate fusion bridges through which organelles extend into a neighboring compartment. Bars represent 10 μm.
Mentions: Simultaneous staining of cell walls and either mitochondria or vacuoles of mycelia in culture revealed that both organelles are capable of passing through hyphal fusion pores to a neighboring compartment (Fig 2). This indicates that cytoplasmic continuity is established by VHF to allow passage of organelles, probably along with microtubules that serve as a scaffold for these organelles [53], [59].

Bottom Line: Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses.Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits.However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Plant Biology Division, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

No MeSH data available.