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The global ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus.

Chancey C, Grinev A, Volkova E, Rios M - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years.While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death.Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, USA.

ABSTRACT
Since its initial isolation in Uganda in 1937 through the present, West Nile virus (WNV) has become an important cause of human and animal disease worldwide. WNV, an enveloped virus of the genus Flavivirus, is naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes, with occasional epizootic spillover causing disease in humans and horses. The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years. While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death. Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

WNV genome organization and virion composition: (a) the viral genome is represented with one ORF encoding 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins. The 5′ and 3′ UTRs are indicated. Structural proteins are colored green, whereas nonstructural proteins are blue. (b) Structure of WNV virion.
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fig2: WNV genome organization and virion composition: (a) the viral genome is represented with one ORF encoding 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins. The 5′ and 3′ UTRs are indicated. Structural proteins are colored green, whereas nonstructural proteins are blue. (b) Structure of WNV virion.

Mentions: WNV belongs to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which also includes Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Rocio virus, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus [19, 20]. Like other flaviviruses, WNV has a single-stranded positive-polarity RNA genome of approximately 11 kb, containing 10 genes flanked by 5′ and 3′ noncoding regions (NCR) with no polyadenylation tail at the 3′ end [21–25]. The NCRs of the WNV genome form stem-loop structures essential for viral replication [26, 27]. The viral genome encodes a single polyprotein that is co- and posttranslationally cleaved into 3 structural proteins: Capsid (C); Pre-M/Membrane (prM/M); and Envelope (E); and 7 nonstructural (NS) proteins: NS1; NS2A; NS2B; NS3; NS4A; NS4B; and NS5 [24, 28] (Figure 2).


The global ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus.

Chancey C, Grinev A, Volkova E, Rios M - Biomed Res Int (2015)

WNV genome organization and virion composition: (a) the viral genome is represented with one ORF encoding 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins. The 5′ and 3′ UTRs are indicated. Structural proteins are colored green, whereas nonstructural proteins are blue. (b) Structure of WNV virion.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383390&req=5

fig2: WNV genome organization and virion composition: (a) the viral genome is represented with one ORF encoding 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins. The 5′ and 3′ UTRs are indicated. Structural proteins are colored green, whereas nonstructural proteins are blue. (b) Structure of WNV virion.
Mentions: WNV belongs to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which also includes Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Rocio virus, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus [19, 20]. Like other flaviviruses, WNV has a single-stranded positive-polarity RNA genome of approximately 11 kb, containing 10 genes flanked by 5′ and 3′ noncoding regions (NCR) with no polyadenylation tail at the 3′ end [21–25]. The NCRs of the WNV genome form stem-loop structures essential for viral replication [26, 27]. The viral genome encodes a single polyprotein that is co- and posttranslationally cleaved into 3 structural proteins: Capsid (C); Pre-M/Membrane (prM/M); and Envelope (E); and 7 nonstructural (NS) proteins: NS1; NS2A; NS2B; NS3; NS4A; NS4B; and NS5 [24, 28] (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years.While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death.Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, USA.

ABSTRACT
Since its initial isolation in Uganda in 1937 through the present, West Nile virus (WNV) has become an important cause of human and animal disease worldwide. WNV, an enveloped virus of the genus Flavivirus, is naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes, with occasional epizootic spillover causing disease in humans and horses. The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years. While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death. Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus