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The global ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus.

Chancey C, Grinev A, Volkova E, Rios M - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years.While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death.Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, USA.

ABSTRACT
Since its initial isolation in Uganda in 1937 through the present, West Nile virus (WNV) has become an important cause of human and animal disease worldwide. WNV, an enveloped virus of the genus Flavivirus, is naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes, with occasional epizootic spillover causing disease in humans and horses. The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years. While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death. Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Global distribution of WNV by country: Red—human cases or human seropositivity; Blue—nonhuman/mosquito cases or seropositivity; Gray—no data or no positives reported. Black lines represent worldwide distribution of the main WNV mosquito vectors, excluding areas of extreme climate denoted by dashed lines. Circled numbers indicate the reported presence of WNV lineages other than lineage 1 in that specific area. For Japan, South Korea, Finland, and Sweden, seropositivity for WNV has been detected only in nonresident birds, which was not considered indicative of local transmission. Kading et al. [182] reported infections in gorillas living near the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, which were sampled in the D.R.C., but may have been infected in Rwanda.
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fig1: Global distribution of WNV by country: Red—human cases or human seropositivity; Blue—nonhuman/mosquito cases or seropositivity; Gray—no data or no positives reported. Black lines represent worldwide distribution of the main WNV mosquito vectors, excluding areas of extreme climate denoted by dashed lines. Circled numbers indicate the reported presence of WNV lineages other than lineage 1 in that specific area. For Japan, South Korea, Finland, and Sweden, seropositivity for WNV has been detected only in nonresident birds, which was not considered indicative of local transmission. Kading et al. [182] reported infections in gorillas living near the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, which were sampled in the D.R.C., but may have been infected in Rwanda.

Mentions: Starting in the mid-1990s, the frequency, severity, and geographic range of WNV outbreaks increased, and outbreaks of WNV meningitis and encephalitis affecting primarily adults struck Bucharest, Romania, in 1996, Volgograd, Russia, in 1999, and Israel, in 2000 [14–16]. WNV crossed the Atlantic and reached the western hemisphere in the summer of 1999 when a cluster of patients with encephalitis was reported in the metropolitan area of New York City, New York, in the United States, and within 3 years the virus had spread to most of the contiguous U.S. and the neighboring countries of Canada and Mexico. In addition, although few human cases have been reported, WNV has also been found in Central and South America through surveillance studies in field specimens, suggesting a potential risk for an outbreak in humans [17, 18]. In the 77 years since its discovery, the virus has propagated to a vast region of the globe and is now considered the most important causative agent of viral encephalitis worldwide (Figure 1).


The global ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus.

Chancey C, Grinev A, Volkova E, Rios M - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Global distribution of WNV by country: Red—human cases or human seropositivity; Blue—nonhuman/mosquito cases or seropositivity; Gray—no data or no positives reported. Black lines represent worldwide distribution of the main WNV mosquito vectors, excluding areas of extreme climate denoted by dashed lines. Circled numbers indicate the reported presence of WNV lineages other than lineage 1 in that specific area. For Japan, South Korea, Finland, and Sweden, seropositivity for WNV has been detected only in nonresident birds, which was not considered indicative of local transmission. Kading et al. [182] reported infections in gorillas living near the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, which were sampled in the D.R.C., but may have been infected in Rwanda.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383390&req=5

fig1: Global distribution of WNV by country: Red—human cases or human seropositivity; Blue—nonhuman/mosquito cases or seropositivity; Gray—no data or no positives reported. Black lines represent worldwide distribution of the main WNV mosquito vectors, excluding areas of extreme climate denoted by dashed lines. Circled numbers indicate the reported presence of WNV lineages other than lineage 1 in that specific area. For Japan, South Korea, Finland, and Sweden, seropositivity for WNV has been detected only in nonresident birds, which was not considered indicative of local transmission. Kading et al. [182] reported infections in gorillas living near the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, which were sampled in the D.R.C., but may have been infected in Rwanda.
Mentions: Starting in the mid-1990s, the frequency, severity, and geographic range of WNV outbreaks increased, and outbreaks of WNV meningitis and encephalitis affecting primarily adults struck Bucharest, Romania, in 1996, Volgograd, Russia, in 1999, and Israel, in 2000 [14–16]. WNV crossed the Atlantic and reached the western hemisphere in the summer of 1999 when a cluster of patients with encephalitis was reported in the metropolitan area of New York City, New York, in the United States, and within 3 years the virus had spread to most of the contiguous U.S. and the neighboring countries of Canada and Mexico. In addition, although few human cases have been reported, WNV has also been found in Central and South America through surveillance studies in field specimens, suggesting a potential risk for an outbreak in humans [17, 18]. In the 77 years since its discovery, the virus has propagated to a vast region of the globe and is now considered the most important causative agent of viral encephalitis worldwide (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years.While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death.Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, USA.

ABSTRACT
Since its initial isolation in Uganda in 1937 through the present, West Nile virus (WNV) has become an important cause of human and animal disease worldwide. WNV, an enveloped virus of the genus Flavivirus, is naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes, with occasional epizootic spillover causing disease in humans and horses. The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years. While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death. Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus