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Post-mortem interval estimation of human skeletal remains by micro-computed tomography, mid-infrared microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray mapping.

Longato S, Wöss C, Hatzer-Grubwieser P, Bauer C, Parson W, Unterberger SH, Kuhn V, Pemberger N, Pallua AK, Recheis W, Lackner R, Stalder R, Pallua JD - Anal Methods (2015)

Bottom Line: In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved.It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation.Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Legal Medicine , Medical University of Innsbruck , Müllerstraße 44 , 6020 Innsbruck , Austria . Email: Johannes.Pallua@i-med.ac.at.

ABSTRACT

In this study different state-of-the-art visualization methods such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), mid-infrared (MIR) microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping were evaluated to study human skeletal remains for the determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI). PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying molecular imaging data and morphological tissue structures generated by radiological techniques and microscopic images gained from confocal microscopy (Infinite Focus (IFM)). In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved. It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation. Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

No MeSH data available.


Calculation of calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P), calcium to carbon (Ca/C) ratio and the sum of calcium and phosphorus (Ca + P) for the determination of bone decomposition/aging. (A) Calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio: Ca/P increases with PMI. (B) Calcium to carbon ratio increases with PMI. (C) The C + P was used to determine the mineralogical content, which increases with PMI.
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fig7: Calculation of calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P), calcium to carbon (Ca/C) ratio and the sum of calcium and phosphorus (Ca + P) for the determination of bone decomposition/aging. (A) Calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio: Ca/P increases with PMI. (B) Calcium to carbon ratio increases with PMI. (C) The C + P was used to determine the mineralogical content, which increases with PMI.

Mentions: For each bone the atomic-composition of six areas was determined. These results were used to calculate the calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio, the calcium to carbon (Ca/C) ratio and the sum of Ca and P (Ca + P) for the determination of bone decomposition/aging. The results in Fig. 7 demonstrate the Ca/P ratio, Ca/C ratio and Ca + P. It could be demonstrated that the Ca/P and the Ca/C increase per PMI. The Ca/P ratio of the forensic bone sample is consistent with a theoretical molar ratio of 1.67 already reported in the literature.49,50 During degradation a tendency to higher Ca/P ratios can be observed. To support our theory it is advised to investigate more samples. More significant is the increase of Ca/C, which demonstrates the degradation of organic matter. This degradation results in a higher mineralogical content, illustrated by the sum of calcium and phosphorus (Fig. 7) and exhibits a higher content with increasing PMI.


Post-mortem interval estimation of human skeletal remains by micro-computed tomography, mid-infrared microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray mapping.

Longato S, Wöss C, Hatzer-Grubwieser P, Bauer C, Parson W, Unterberger SH, Kuhn V, Pemberger N, Pallua AK, Recheis W, Lackner R, Stalder R, Pallua JD - Anal Methods (2015)

Calculation of calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P), calcium to carbon (Ca/C) ratio and the sum of calcium and phosphorus (Ca + P) for the determination of bone decomposition/aging. (A) Calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio: Ca/P increases with PMI. (B) Calcium to carbon ratio increases with PMI. (C) The C + P was used to determine the mineralogical content, which increases with PMI.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383336&req=5

fig7: Calculation of calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P), calcium to carbon (Ca/C) ratio and the sum of calcium and phosphorus (Ca + P) for the determination of bone decomposition/aging. (A) Calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio: Ca/P increases with PMI. (B) Calcium to carbon ratio increases with PMI. (C) The C + P was used to determine the mineralogical content, which increases with PMI.
Mentions: For each bone the atomic-composition of six areas was determined. These results were used to calculate the calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio, the calcium to carbon (Ca/C) ratio and the sum of Ca and P (Ca + P) for the determination of bone decomposition/aging. The results in Fig. 7 demonstrate the Ca/P ratio, Ca/C ratio and Ca + P. It could be demonstrated that the Ca/P and the Ca/C increase per PMI. The Ca/P ratio of the forensic bone sample is consistent with a theoretical molar ratio of 1.67 already reported in the literature.49,50 During degradation a tendency to higher Ca/P ratios can be observed. To support our theory it is advised to investigate more samples. More significant is the increase of Ca/C, which demonstrates the degradation of organic matter. This degradation results in a higher mineralogical content, illustrated by the sum of calcium and phosphorus (Fig. 7) and exhibits a higher content with increasing PMI.

Bottom Line: In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved.It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation.Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Legal Medicine , Medical University of Innsbruck , Müllerstraße 44 , 6020 Innsbruck , Austria . Email: Johannes.Pallua@i-med.ac.at.

ABSTRACT

In this study different state-of-the-art visualization methods such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), mid-infrared (MIR) microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping were evaluated to study human skeletal remains for the determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI). PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying molecular imaging data and morphological tissue structures generated by radiological techniques and microscopic images gained from confocal microscopy (Infinite Focus (IFM)). In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved. It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation. Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

No MeSH data available.