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Post-mortem interval estimation of human skeletal remains by micro-computed tomography, mid-infrared microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray mapping.

Longato S, Wöss C, Hatzer-Grubwieser P, Bauer C, Parson W, Unterberger SH, Kuhn V, Pemberger N, Pallua AK, Recheis W, Lackner R, Stalder R, Pallua JD - Anal Methods (2015)

Bottom Line: In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved.It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation.Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Legal Medicine , Medical University of Innsbruck , Müllerstraße 44 , 6020 Innsbruck , Austria . Email: Johannes.Pallua@i-med.ac.at.

ABSTRACT

In this study different state-of-the-art visualization methods such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), mid-infrared (MIR) microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping were evaluated to study human skeletal remains for the determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI). PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying molecular imaging data and morphological tissue structures generated by radiological techniques and microscopic images gained from confocal microscopy (Infinite Focus (IFM)). In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved. It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation. Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

SEM secondary electron (SE) images and EDS data of one forensic (A, C, E, G, I and K) and one archaeological bone sample (B, D, F, H, J and L). EDS maps of elemental distribution: carbon (C and D) in red, oxygen (E and F) in turquoise, carbon (G and H) in green and phosphate (I and J) in grey. Combined elemental maps (K and L) presented as false colours: carbon, oxygen, carbon and phosphorus.
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fig6: SEM secondary electron (SE) images and EDS data of one forensic (A, C, E, G, I and K) and one archaeological bone sample (B, D, F, H, J and L). EDS maps of elemental distribution: carbon (C and D) in red, oxygen (E and F) in turquoise, carbon (G and H) in green and phosphate (I and J) in grey. Combined elemental maps (K and L) presented as false colours: carbon, oxygen, carbon and phosphorus.

Mentions: Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping was used to decipher the elemental distribution pattern and to determine the calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio as well as the calcium to carbon (Ca/C) ratio of the bone sample by the sum of Ca and P (Ca + P) on the six bone samples. Exemplarily, mapping results from two individual bone samples are illustrated in Fig. 6. The output of the data analyses illustrates the ability of EDS mapping to reflect decomposition/aging processes of bone samples and the elemental distribution within the bone specimen. The images in Fig. 6(A) and (B) represent SEM secondary electron (SE) images of the bone samples, which were simultaneously measured during EDS mapping. Micrographs serve as reference to elemental maps (Fig. 6(C)–(J)) and combined elemental maps (Fig. 6(K and L)). Fig. 6(C) and (D) depict elemental maps of carbon, which is an indicator of organic matter. The results demonstrate that forensic bones exhibit regions with a higher content of carbon than archaeological ones. Fig. 6(K) and (L) depict combined elemental maps. The displayed images represent a combination of carbon (red pixels), oxygen (turquoise pixels), calcium (green pixels) and phosphorus (grey pixels). The principal correspondence between the SE images and the combined elemental maps is obvious and it is possible to correlate elemental signals detected by the used method with decomposition/aging processes.


Post-mortem interval estimation of human skeletal remains by micro-computed tomography, mid-infrared microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray mapping.

Longato S, Wöss C, Hatzer-Grubwieser P, Bauer C, Parson W, Unterberger SH, Kuhn V, Pemberger N, Pallua AK, Recheis W, Lackner R, Stalder R, Pallua JD - Anal Methods (2015)

SEM secondary electron (SE) images and EDS data of one forensic (A, C, E, G, I and K) and one archaeological bone sample (B, D, F, H, J and L). EDS maps of elemental distribution: carbon (C and D) in red, oxygen (E and F) in turquoise, carbon (G and H) in green and phosphate (I and J) in grey. Combined elemental maps (K and L) presented as false colours: carbon, oxygen, carbon and phosphorus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4383336&req=5

fig6: SEM secondary electron (SE) images and EDS data of one forensic (A, C, E, G, I and K) and one archaeological bone sample (B, D, F, H, J and L). EDS maps of elemental distribution: carbon (C and D) in red, oxygen (E and F) in turquoise, carbon (G and H) in green and phosphate (I and J) in grey. Combined elemental maps (K and L) presented as false colours: carbon, oxygen, carbon and phosphorus.
Mentions: Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping was used to decipher the elemental distribution pattern and to determine the calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio as well as the calcium to carbon (Ca/C) ratio of the bone sample by the sum of Ca and P (Ca + P) on the six bone samples. Exemplarily, mapping results from two individual bone samples are illustrated in Fig. 6. The output of the data analyses illustrates the ability of EDS mapping to reflect decomposition/aging processes of bone samples and the elemental distribution within the bone specimen. The images in Fig. 6(A) and (B) represent SEM secondary electron (SE) images of the bone samples, which were simultaneously measured during EDS mapping. Micrographs serve as reference to elemental maps (Fig. 6(C)–(J)) and combined elemental maps (Fig. 6(K and L)). Fig. 6(C) and (D) depict elemental maps of carbon, which is an indicator of organic matter. The results demonstrate that forensic bones exhibit regions with a higher content of carbon than archaeological ones. Fig. 6(K) and (L) depict combined elemental maps. The displayed images represent a combination of carbon (red pixels), oxygen (turquoise pixels), calcium (green pixels) and phosphorus (grey pixels). The principal correspondence between the SE images and the combined elemental maps is obvious and it is possible to correlate elemental signals detected by the used method with decomposition/aging processes.

Bottom Line: In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved.It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation.Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Legal Medicine , Medical University of Innsbruck , Müllerstraße 44 , 6020 Innsbruck , Austria . Email: Johannes.Pallua@i-med.ac.at.

ABSTRACT

In this study different state-of-the-art visualization methods such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), mid-infrared (MIR) microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping were evaluated to study human skeletal remains for the determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI). PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying molecular imaging data and morphological tissue structures generated by radiological techniques and microscopic images gained from confocal microscopy (Infinite Focus (IFM)). In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved. It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation. Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus