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An emergentist vs a linear approach to social change processes: a gender look in contemporary India between modernity and Hindu tradition.

Condorelli R - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: Data analysis suggests that these unexpected combinations are not comprehensible in light of a linear concept of social change which is founded, in turn, on a concept of social systems as linear interaction systems that relate to environmental perturbations according to proportional cause and effect relationships.And progressive decreases should be found in rates of social indicators of gender inequality like dowry deaths (the inverse should be found in sex ratio trends).However, data does not confirm these trends.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Political and Social Sciences, Catania University, 8 Vittorio Emanuele II, Catania, 95131 Italy.

ABSTRACT
Using Census of India data from 1901 to 2011 and national and international reports on women's condition in India, beginning with sex ratio trends according to regional distribution up to female infanticides and sex-selective abortions and dowry deaths, this study examines the sociological aspects of the gender imbalance in modern contemporary India. Gender inequality persistence in India proves that new values and structures do not necessarily lead to the disappearance of older forms, but they can co-exist with mutual adaptations and reinforcements. Data analysis suggests that these unexpected combinations are not comprehensible in light of a linear concept of social change which is founded, in turn, on a concept of social systems as linear interaction systems that relate to environmental perturbations according to proportional cause and effect relationships. From this perspective, in fact, behavioral attitudes and interaction relationships should be less and less proportionally regulated by traditional values and practices as exposure to modernizing influences increases. And progressive decreases should be found in rates of social indicators of gender inequality like dowry deaths (the inverse should be found in sex ratio trends). However, data does not confirm these trends. This finding leads to emphasize a new theoretical and methodological approach toward social systems study, namely the conception of social systems as complex adaptive systems and the consequential emergentist, nonlinear conception of social change processes. Within the framework of emergentist theory of social change is it possible to understand the lasting strength of the patriarchal tradition and its problematic consequences in the modern contemporary India.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sex ratio at birth by state. Source: Annual report on vital statistics of India based on CRS-2009.
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Fig2: Sex ratio at birth by state. Source: Annual report on vital statistics of India based on CRS-2009.

Mentions: On the whole, from the Census 1901 to Census 2011, the overall sex ratio reveals a lower presence of women within the total population, with a progressive decreasing trend (for example, from 1901 to 2001 the overall sex ratio declines from 972 women per 1000 men to 933, and goes to 940 in 2011, with a slight increase which, however, does not change the unfavorable general picture. The significance of this slight increase is affected by decrease of the sex ratio at birth - SBR, number of female babies born per 1000 males born - and child sex ratio 0–6 years - CSR, girls per 1000 boys under age 7. This applies to the 7 and over sex ratio trend as well; Tables 2, 3 and 4)g. It is no coincidence that the tendency of a lower female population out of the total population is mainly found in the rural States of Northwest compared to Indian Southern States (for example, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Rajasthan). Similarly, the sex ratio at birth, affecting CSR, is unfavorable to females and presents a similar geographical distribution as the one observed for the overall sex ratio (Tables 3 and 1; Figure 2). Several studies confirm that regional variability of women/men ratio shows a certain connection between the type of agriculture and female mortality: the pre and post natality female mortality increases where women do not produce wealth with the consequential rigid persistence of the patriarchal, patri-local and patri-linear, and Hindu cultural traditions, independent from local economic development (two of rural Northwest India’s wealthiest states (population is in the highest wealth quintile; see Additional file 1: Table A) present the lowest sex ratio at birth and child sex ratio 0–6 years: the rural states of Punjab, that has benefitted from the Agrarian Reform and the Green Revolution and Haryana, which was once part of Punjab; the same is true for Gujarat; Miller 1981; Rosenzweing and Schultz 1982; Dyson and Moore 1983; Kishor 1993).Table 2


An emergentist vs a linear approach to social change processes: a gender look in contemporary India between modernity and Hindu tradition.

Condorelli R - Springerplus (2015)

Sex ratio at birth by state. Source: Annual report on vital statistics of India based on CRS-2009.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4382501&req=5

Fig2: Sex ratio at birth by state. Source: Annual report on vital statistics of India based on CRS-2009.
Mentions: On the whole, from the Census 1901 to Census 2011, the overall sex ratio reveals a lower presence of women within the total population, with a progressive decreasing trend (for example, from 1901 to 2001 the overall sex ratio declines from 972 women per 1000 men to 933, and goes to 940 in 2011, with a slight increase which, however, does not change the unfavorable general picture. The significance of this slight increase is affected by decrease of the sex ratio at birth - SBR, number of female babies born per 1000 males born - and child sex ratio 0–6 years - CSR, girls per 1000 boys under age 7. This applies to the 7 and over sex ratio trend as well; Tables 2, 3 and 4)g. It is no coincidence that the tendency of a lower female population out of the total population is mainly found in the rural States of Northwest compared to Indian Southern States (for example, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Rajasthan). Similarly, the sex ratio at birth, affecting CSR, is unfavorable to females and presents a similar geographical distribution as the one observed for the overall sex ratio (Tables 3 and 1; Figure 2). Several studies confirm that regional variability of women/men ratio shows a certain connection between the type of agriculture and female mortality: the pre and post natality female mortality increases where women do not produce wealth with the consequential rigid persistence of the patriarchal, patri-local and patri-linear, and Hindu cultural traditions, independent from local economic development (two of rural Northwest India’s wealthiest states (population is in the highest wealth quintile; see Additional file 1: Table A) present the lowest sex ratio at birth and child sex ratio 0–6 years: the rural states of Punjab, that has benefitted from the Agrarian Reform and the Green Revolution and Haryana, which was once part of Punjab; the same is true for Gujarat; Miller 1981; Rosenzweing and Schultz 1982; Dyson and Moore 1983; Kishor 1993).Table 2

Bottom Line: Data analysis suggests that these unexpected combinations are not comprehensible in light of a linear concept of social change which is founded, in turn, on a concept of social systems as linear interaction systems that relate to environmental perturbations according to proportional cause and effect relationships.And progressive decreases should be found in rates of social indicators of gender inequality like dowry deaths (the inverse should be found in sex ratio trends).However, data does not confirm these trends.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Political and Social Sciences, Catania University, 8 Vittorio Emanuele II, Catania, 95131 Italy.

ABSTRACT
Using Census of India data from 1901 to 2011 and national and international reports on women's condition in India, beginning with sex ratio trends according to regional distribution up to female infanticides and sex-selective abortions and dowry deaths, this study examines the sociological aspects of the gender imbalance in modern contemporary India. Gender inequality persistence in India proves that new values and structures do not necessarily lead to the disappearance of older forms, but they can co-exist with mutual adaptations and reinforcements. Data analysis suggests that these unexpected combinations are not comprehensible in light of a linear concept of social change which is founded, in turn, on a concept of social systems as linear interaction systems that relate to environmental perturbations according to proportional cause and effect relationships. From this perspective, in fact, behavioral attitudes and interaction relationships should be less and less proportionally regulated by traditional values and practices as exposure to modernizing influences increases. And progressive decreases should be found in rates of social indicators of gender inequality like dowry deaths (the inverse should be found in sex ratio trends). However, data does not confirm these trends. This finding leads to emphasize a new theoretical and methodological approach toward social systems study, namely the conception of social systems as complex adaptive systems and the consequential emergentist, nonlinear conception of social change processes. Within the framework of emergentist theory of social change is it possible to understand the lasting strength of the patriarchal tradition and its problematic consequences in the modern contemporary India.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus