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Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae) shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

Hendricks JR - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: These include: Profundiconus?Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems.Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geology, San José State University, California, United States of America and Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails)--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus) and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus) ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus?) franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus) gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus) bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus) cashi, Conus (Dauciconus) garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus?) zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus?) kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus?) lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus?) carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

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Conasprella stenostoma Sowerby I, 1850.Both specimens are from locality station TU 1215 (Gurabo Fm.). (A-B) PRI 66148, SL 28.1 mm; (C-D) PRI 67549, SL 16.0 mm. All are reversed images of specimens photographed under UV light. Scale bar is 1 cm and pertains to all images.
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pone.0120924.g005: Conasprella stenostoma Sowerby I, 1850.Both specimens are from locality station TU 1215 (Gurabo Fm.). (A-B) PRI 66148, SL 28.1 mm; (C-D) PRI 67549, SL 16.0 mm. All are reversed images of specimens photographed under UV light. Scale bar is 1 cm and pertains to all images.

Mentions: Finally, locality TU 1215 is exposed at bluffs on both sides of Río Gurabo, “from the ford on Los Quemados-Sabaneta road, upstream to approximately 1 km above the ford” ([24], p. 64). The boundaries of the locality are shown in Sanders et al. ([24], text-Fig. 5); the north end of the locality is at ca. 19.506678°, -71.182946°, and the south end at 19.498825°, -71.179809°. According to Waller [29], TU 1215 is positioned in the lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., between about 275–384 m in the section of Saunders et al. [24]. This is a large collecting locality and—according to the Río Gurabo age-depth model of McNeill et al. [26]—ranges from ca. 4.8–5.4 Ma. Over 60 coral species have been reported from NMB localities equivalent to TU 1215 (based on data available at http://nmita.geology.uiowa.edu). There is debate about whether the corals are preserved in situ, as suggested by Vokes [27], or if they “tumbled downslope into fine sediments” (Waller [29], p. 29). Based on the fauna of pectinids at TU 1215, Waller [29] argued that the locality likely represents water depths of around 50 m or more. Given this, it is possible that the cone snail fauna at this locality represents more than one paleoenvironmental setting (deeper water species with transported reef-associated species) and—given the ca. 0.6 My duration of the locality—potentially taxa that did not co-exist in time.


Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae) shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

Hendricks JR - PLoS ONE (2015)

Conasprella stenostoma Sowerby I, 1850.Both specimens are from locality station TU 1215 (Gurabo Fm.). (A-B) PRI 66148, SL 28.1 mm; (C-D) PRI 67549, SL 16.0 mm. All are reversed images of specimens photographed under UV light. Scale bar is 1 cm and pertains to all images.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4382297&req=5

pone.0120924.g005: Conasprella stenostoma Sowerby I, 1850.Both specimens are from locality station TU 1215 (Gurabo Fm.). (A-B) PRI 66148, SL 28.1 mm; (C-D) PRI 67549, SL 16.0 mm. All are reversed images of specimens photographed under UV light. Scale bar is 1 cm and pertains to all images.
Mentions: Finally, locality TU 1215 is exposed at bluffs on both sides of Río Gurabo, “from the ford on Los Quemados-Sabaneta road, upstream to approximately 1 km above the ford” ([24], p. 64). The boundaries of the locality are shown in Sanders et al. ([24], text-Fig. 5); the north end of the locality is at ca. 19.506678°, -71.182946°, and the south end at 19.498825°, -71.179809°. According to Waller [29], TU 1215 is positioned in the lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., between about 275–384 m in the section of Saunders et al. [24]. This is a large collecting locality and—according to the Río Gurabo age-depth model of McNeill et al. [26]—ranges from ca. 4.8–5.4 Ma. Over 60 coral species have been reported from NMB localities equivalent to TU 1215 (based on data available at http://nmita.geology.uiowa.edu). There is debate about whether the corals are preserved in situ, as suggested by Vokes [27], or if they “tumbled downslope into fine sediments” (Waller [29], p. 29). Based on the fauna of pectinids at TU 1215, Waller [29] argued that the locality likely represents water depths of around 50 m or more. Given this, it is possible that the cone snail fauna at this locality represents more than one paleoenvironmental setting (deeper water species with transported reef-associated species) and—given the ca. 0.6 My duration of the locality—potentially taxa that did not co-exist in time.

Bottom Line: These include: Profundiconus?Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems.Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geology, San José State University, California, United States of America and Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails)--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus) and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus) ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus?) franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus) gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus) bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus) cashi, Conus (Dauciconus) garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus?) zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus?) kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus?) lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus?) carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

Show MeSH