Pharmacology of cognitive enhancers for exposure-based therapy of fear, anxiety and trauma-related disorders.
Bottom Line: Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that pharmacological treatments including cognitive enhancers, when given as adjuncts to psychotherapeutic approaches [cognitive behavioral therapy including extinction-based exposure therapy] enhance treatment efficacy, while using anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines as adjuncts can undermine long-term treatment success.Particularly promising approaches are discussed in regard to their effects on specific aspects of fear extinction namely, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, including long-term protection from return of fear (relapse) phenomena like spontaneous recovery, reinstatement and renewal of fear.We also highlight the promising translational value of the preclinial research and the clinical potential of targeting certain neurochemical systems with, for example d-cycloserine, yohimbine, cortisol, and L-DOPA.
Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacy and CMBI, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address: email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: There are 16 5-HT receptor subtypes classified into 7 receptor families (5-HT1–7) (Fig. 4). All 5-HT receptors, excluding the 5-HT3 family – a member of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, are metabotropic, coupled to Gs (5-HT6 and 5-HT7), Gi/0 (5-HT1, 5-HT4 and 5-HT5) or Gq (5-HT2) proteins.
Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacy and CMBI, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.