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Diarrhea, stimulation and growth predict neurodevelopment in young North Indian children.

Kvestad I, Taneja S, Hysing M, Kumar T, Bhandari N, Strand TA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Infants and young children in low to middle-income countries are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment due to multiple risk factors.We identified predictors for ASQ-3 scores in multiple linear and logistic regression models.We were able to explain 30.5% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score by the identified predictors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Background and objective: Infants and young children in low to middle-income countries are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment due to multiple risk factors. In this study, we sought to identify stimulation and learning opportunities, growth, and burden of respiratory infections and diarrhea as predictors for neurodevelopment.

Methods: We visited 422 North Indian children 6 to 30 months old weekly for six months. Childhood illnesses were assessed biweekly. At end study, we assessed neurodevelopment using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. (ASQ-3) and gathered information on stimulation and learning opportunities. We identified predictors for ASQ-3 scores in multiple linear and logistic regression models.

Results: We were able to explain 30.5% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score by the identified predictors. When adjusting for child characteristics and annual family income, stimulation and learning opportunities explained most of the variation by 25.1%. Height for age (standardized beta: 0.12, p<.05) and weight for height z-scores (std. beta: 0.09, p<.05) were positively associated with the total ASQ-3 score, while number of days with diarrhea was negatively associated with these scores (std. beta: -0.13, p<0.01).

Conclusion: Our results support the importance of early child stimulation and general nutrition for child development. Our study also suggests that diarrhea is an additional risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment in vulnerable children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Associations between height for age z-scores and changes in ASQ-scores.The graphs were constructed using generalized additive models in R, the solid line depicts the association of the ASQ-score and HAZ. The Y-axis is centered on the mean total ASQ-score. The shaded area spans the 95% confidence interval of this association.
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pone.0121743.g001: Associations between height for age z-scores and changes in ASQ-scores.The graphs were constructed using generalized additive models in R, the solid line depicts the association of the ASQ-score and HAZ. The Y-axis is centered on the mean total ASQ-score. The shaded area spans the 95% confidence interval of this association.

Mentions: Growth alone explained 10.4% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score (Table 2, model 2), and when including childhood illnesses these explained 13.7% together (Table 2, model 6). HAZ and WHZ were positively and significantly associated with the total ASQ-3 score in all models (p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.05), however the coefficients were attenuated when stimulation and learning opportunities was included. Fig. 1 shows the relationship between HAZ and the total ASQ-3 score in generalized additive models (GAM).


Diarrhea, stimulation and growth predict neurodevelopment in young North Indian children.

Kvestad I, Taneja S, Hysing M, Kumar T, Bhandari N, Strand TA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Associations between height for age z-scores and changes in ASQ-scores.The graphs were constructed using generalized additive models in R, the solid line depicts the association of the ASQ-score and HAZ. The Y-axis is centered on the mean total ASQ-score. The shaded area spans the 95% confidence interval of this association.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4380317&req=5

pone.0121743.g001: Associations between height for age z-scores and changes in ASQ-scores.The graphs were constructed using generalized additive models in R, the solid line depicts the association of the ASQ-score and HAZ. The Y-axis is centered on the mean total ASQ-score. The shaded area spans the 95% confidence interval of this association.
Mentions: Growth alone explained 10.4% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score (Table 2, model 2), and when including childhood illnesses these explained 13.7% together (Table 2, model 6). HAZ and WHZ were positively and significantly associated with the total ASQ-3 score in all models (p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.05), however the coefficients were attenuated when stimulation and learning opportunities was included. Fig. 1 shows the relationship between HAZ and the total ASQ-3 score in generalized additive models (GAM).

Bottom Line: Infants and young children in low to middle-income countries are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment due to multiple risk factors.We identified predictors for ASQ-3 scores in multiple linear and logistic regression models.We were able to explain 30.5% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score by the identified predictors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Background and objective: Infants and young children in low to middle-income countries are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment due to multiple risk factors. In this study, we sought to identify stimulation and learning opportunities, growth, and burden of respiratory infections and diarrhea as predictors for neurodevelopment.

Methods: We visited 422 North Indian children 6 to 30 months old weekly for six months. Childhood illnesses were assessed biweekly. At end study, we assessed neurodevelopment using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. (ASQ-3) and gathered information on stimulation and learning opportunities. We identified predictors for ASQ-3 scores in multiple linear and logistic regression models.

Results: We were able to explain 30.5% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score by the identified predictors. When adjusting for child characteristics and annual family income, stimulation and learning opportunities explained most of the variation by 25.1%. Height for age (standardized beta: 0.12, p<.05) and weight for height z-scores (std. beta: 0.09, p<.05) were positively associated with the total ASQ-3 score, while number of days with diarrhea was negatively associated with these scores (std. beta: -0.13, p<0.01).

Conclusion: Our results support the importance of early child stimulation and general nutrition for child development. Our study also suggests that diarrhea is an additional risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment in vulnerable children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus