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Phlebotomus sergenti in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Azilal province (High Atlas, Morocco): molecular detection and genotyping of Leishmania tropica, and feeding behavior.

Ajaoud M, Es-Sette N, Charrel RN, Laamrani-Idrissi A, Nhammi H, Riyad M, Lemrani M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Phlebotomus sergenti collected were found to feed on a large variety of vertebrate hosts, as determined by Cytochrome b sequencing of the DNA from the blood meals of 64 engorged females.Furthermore, our results might be suggestive of a certain level of heterozygosity in Leishmania tropica population.This finding, as well as the feeding of the vectors on different animals are of interest for further investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Parasitologie et Maladies Vectorielles, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco; Centre d'Etudes Doctorales des Sciences de la Santé, Faculté de Médecine et Pharmacie, Casablanca, Morocco.

ABSTRACT

Background: Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti is at least one of the confirmed vectors for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica and distributed widely in Morocco. This form of leishmaniasis is considered largely as anthroponotic, although dogs were found infected with Leishmania tropica, suggestive of zoonosis in some rural areas.

Methodology and findings: This survey aimed at (i) studying the presence of Leishmania in field caught Phlebotomus sergenti, (ii) investigating genetic diversity within Leishmania tropica and (iii) identifying the host-blood feeding preferences of Phlebotomus sergenti. A total of 4,407 sand flies were collected in three rural areas of Azilal province, using CDC miniature light traps. Samples collected were found to consist of 13 species: Phlebotomus spp. and 3 Sergentomyia spp. The most abundant species was Phlebotomus sergenti, accounting for 45.75 % of the total. 965 female Phlebotomus sergenti were screened for the presence of Leishmania by ITS1-PCR-RFLP, giving a positive rate of 5.7% (55/965), all being identified as Leishmania tropica. Nucleotide heterogeneity of PCR-amplified ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 was noted. Analyses of 31 sequences obtained segregated them into 16 haplotypes, of which 7 contain superimposed peaks at certain nucleotide positions, suggestive of heterozygosity. Phlebotomus sergenti collected were found to feed on a large variety of vertebrate hosts, as determined by Cytochrome b sequencing of the DNA from the blood meals of 64 engorged females.

Conclusion: Our findings supported the notion that Phlebotomus sergenti is the primary vector of Leishmania tropica in this focus, and that the latter is genetically very heterogeneous. Furthermore, our results might be suggestive of a certain level of heterozygosity in Leishmania tropica population. This finding, as well as the feeding of the vectors on different animals are of interest for further investigation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method of ITS rDNA sequences of different strains of Leishmania.(Red discs: L. tropica sequences).
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pntd.0003687.g002: Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method of ITS rDNA sequences of different strains of Leishmania.(Red discs: L. tropica sequences).

Mentions: Another 16 sequences were grouped into 15 haplotypes: KM454141 and KM454143 to KM454156 highly similar (97% to 99% identity) to L. tropica strains from India (FJ948456, FJ948455, FJ948465, FJ948458), they differed from the common haplotype by 1 to 18 nucleotides. One of the 15 haplotypes is highly similar to that identified previously in CL patients (KC145159) from an emerging focus of CL in central Morocco (Fig. 2).


Phlebotomus sergenti in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Azilal province (High Atlas, Morocco): molecular detection and genotyping of Leishmania tropica, and feeding behavior.

Ajaoud M, Es-Sette N, Charrel RN, Laamrani-Idrissi A, Nhammi H, Riyad M, Lemrani M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method of ITS rDNA sequences of different strains of Leishmania.(Red discs: L. tropica sequences).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4380298&req=5

pntd.0003687.g002: Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method of ITS rDNA sequences of different strains of Leishmania.(Red discs: L. tropica sequences).
Mentions: Another 16 sequences were grouped into 15 haplotypes: KM454141 and KM454143 to KM454156 highly similar (97% to 99% identity) to L. tropica strains from India (FJ948456, FJ948455, FJ948465, FJ948458), they differed from the common haplotype by 1 to 18 nucleotides. One of the 15 haplotypes is highly similar to that identified previously in CL patients (KC145159) from an emerging focus of CL in central Morocco (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Phlebotomus sergenti collected were found to feed on a large variety of vertebrate hosts, as determined by Cytochrome b sequencing of the DNA from the blood meals of 64 engorged females.Furthermore, our results might be suggestive of a certain level of heterozygosity in Leishmania tropica population.This finding, as well as the feeding of the vectors on different animals are of interest for further investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Parasitologie et Maladies Vectorielles, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco; Centre d'Etudes Doctorales des Sciences de la Santé, Faculté de Médecine et Pharmacie, Casablanca, Morocco.

ABSTRACT

Background: Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti is at least one of the confirmed vectors for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica and distributed widely in Morocco. This form of leishmaniasis is considered largely as anthroponotic, although dogs were found infected with Leishmania tropica, suggestive of zoonosis in some rural areas.

Methodology and findings: This survey aimed at (i) studying the presence of Leishmania in field caught Phlebotomus sergenti, (ii) investigating genetic diversity within Leishmania tropica and (iii) identifying the host-blood feeding preferences of Phlebotomus sergenti. A total of 4,407 sand flies were collected in three rural areas of Azilal province, using CDC miniature light traps. Samples collected were found to consist of 13 species: Phlebotomus spp. and 3 Sergentomyia spp. The most abundant species was Phlebotomus sergenti, accounting for 45.75 % of the total. 965 female Phlebotomus sergenti were screened for the presence of Leishmania by ITS1-PCR-RFLP, giving a positive rate of 5.7% (55/965), all being identified as Leishmania tropica. Nucleotide heterogeneity of PCR-amplified ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 was noted. Analyses of 31 sequences obtained segregated them into 16 haplotypes, of which 7 contain superimposed peaks at certain nucleotide positions, suggestive of heterozygosity. Phlebotomus sergenti collected were found to feed on a large variety of vertebrate hosts, as determined by Cytochrome b sequencing of the DNA from the blood meals of 64 engorged females.

Conclusion: Our findings supported the notion that Phlebotomus sergenti is the primary vector of Leishmania tropica in this focus, and that the latter is genetically very heterogeneous. Furthermore, our results might be suggestive of a certain level of heterozygosity in Leishmania tropica population. This finding, as well as the feeding of the vectors on different animals are of interest for further investigation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus