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Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine.

Nelson MI, Viboud C, Vincent AL, Culhane MR, Detmer SE, Wentworth DE, Rambaut A, Suchard MA, Holmes EC, Lemey P - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs).In contrast, China has the world's largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighbouring Asian countries or globally.A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the United States and China's large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

ABSTRACT
The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs). Here we undertake an expansive phylogenetic analysis of swIAV sequence data and demonstrate that the global live swine trade strongly predicts the spatial dissemination of swIAVs, with Europe and North America acting as sources of viruses in Asian countries. In contrast, China has the world's largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighbouring Asian countries or globally. A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the United States and China's large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Modeled global swine distributionsDigital layers from Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) (version 2.01)50, downloaded from the publically available Livestock Geo-Wiki database (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org) and manually edited in QGIS v.1.7.0. Swine densities are represented by black shading.
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Figure 1: Modeled global swine distributionsDigital layers from Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) (version 2.01)50, downloaded from the publically available Livestock Geo-Wiki database (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org) and manually edited in QGIS v.1.7.0. Swine densities are represented by black shading.

Mentions: Live transport is routine in swine farming, and in the United States the transport of millions of swine from Southern to Midwestern regions for end-stage production appears to drive the strongly directional dissemination of swIAVs from Southern US states with high hog production (e.g., North Carolina, Texas, and Oklahoma) to the traditional center of swine farming located in the Midwestern ‘corn belt’17. Large numbers of swine also enter the United States from Canada, which has been implicated in the dissemination of other important swine pathogens, including Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)18. Intercontinental trade of live swine also occurs, for end-stage production or to acquire female breeding pigs for genetic improvement of swine reproduction or growth traits. Globally, the largest swine population is found in China, where over 450 million hogs reside (Fig. 1). Large swine populations also are found in the United States (> 60 million hogs), Brazil (> 30 million hogs), Vietnam (> 20 million hogs), Germany (> 20 million hogs), and Spain (> 20 million hogs).


Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine.

Nelson MI, Viboud C, Vincent AL, Culhane MR, Detmer SE, Wentworth DE, Rambaut A, Suchard MA, Holmes EC, Lemey P - Nat Commun (2015)

Modeled global swine distributionsDigital layers from Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) (version 2.01)50, downloaded from the publically available Livestock Geo-Wiki database (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org) and manually edited in QGIS v.1.7.0. Swine densities are represented by black shading.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4380236&req=5

Figure 1: Modeled global swine distributionsDigital layers from Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) (version 2.01)50, downloaded from the publically available Livestock Geo-Wiki database (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org) and manually edited in QGIS v.1.7.0. Swine densities are represented by black shading.
Mentions: Live transport is routine in swine farming, and in the United States the transport of millions of swine from Southern to Midwestern regions for end-stage production appears to drive the strongly directional dissemination of swIAVs from Southern US states with high hog production (e.g., North Carolina, Texas, and Oklahoma) to the traditional center of swine farming located in the Midwestern ‘corn belt’17. Large numbers of swine also enter the United States from Canada, which has been implicated in the dissemination of other important swine pathogens, including Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)18. Intercontinental trade of live swine also occurs, for end-stage production or to acquire female breeding pigs for genetic improvement of swine reproduction or growth traits. Globally, the largest swine population is found in China, where over 450 million hogs reside (Fig. 1). Large swine populations also are found in the United States (> 60 million hogs), Brazil (> 30 million hogs), Vietnam (> 20 million hogs), Germany (> 20 million hogs), and Spain (> 20 million hogs).

Bottom Line: The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs).In contrast, China has the world's largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighbouring Asian countries or globally.A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the United States and China's large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

ABSTRACT
The complex and unresolved evolutionary origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed major gaps in our knowledge of the global spatial ecology and evolution of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs). Here we undertake an expansive phylogenetic analysis of swIAV sequence data and demonstrate that the global live swine trade strongly predicts the spatial dissemination of swIAVs, with Europe and North America acting as sources of viruses in Asian countries. In contrast, China has the world's largest swine population but is not a major exporter of live swine, and is not an important source of swIAVs in neighbouring Asian countries or globally. A meta-population simulation model incorporating trade data predicts that the global ecology of swIAVs is more complex than previously thought, and the United States and China's large swine populations are unlikely to be representative of swIAV diversity in their respective geographic regions, requiring independent surveillance efforts throughout Latin America and Asia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus