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Fibrin gel as an injectable biodegradable scaffold and cell carrier for tissue engineering.

Li Y, Meng H, Liu Y, Lee BP - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: Additionally, fibrin gel mimics the natural blood-clotting process and self-assembles into a polymer network.The ability for fibrin to cure in situ has been exploited to develop injectable scaffolds for the repair of damaged cardiac and cartilage tissues.Additionally, fibrin gel has been utilized as a cell carrier to protect cells from the forces during the application and cell delivery processes while enhancing the cell viability and tissue regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA.

ABSTRACT
Due to the increasing needs for organ transplantation and a universal shortage of donated tissues, tissue engineering emerges as a useful approach to engineer functional tissues. Although different synthetic materials have been used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, they have many limitations such as the biocompatibility concerns, the inability to support cell attachment, and undesirable degradation rate. Fibrin gel, a biopolymeric material, provides numerous advantages over synthetic materials in functioning as a tissue engineering scaffold and a cell carrier. Fibrin gel exhibits excellent biocompatibility, promotes cell attachment, and can degrade in a controllable manner. Additionally, fibrin gel mimics the natural blood-clotting process and self-assembles into a polymer network. The ability for fibrin to cure in situ has been exploited to develop injectable scaffolds for the repair of damaged cardiac and cartilage tissues. Additionally, fibrin gel has been utilized as a cell carrier to protect cells from the forces during the application and cell delivery processes while enhancing the cell viability and tissue regeneration. Here, we review the recent advancement in developing fibrin-based biomaterials for the development of injectable tissue engineering scaffold and cell carriers.

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Schematic illustration of fabrications of two- and three-dimensional cell culture scaffold. The conventional two-dimensional scaffold is fabricated in advance of cell seeding and the isolated cells are seeded on the surface of scaffold (a). The three-dimensional scaffold cures in the presence of the encapsulated cells. Then, the mixture can be delivered into a mold to gel or directly injected into a defect in the body (b).
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fig3: Schematic illustration of fabrications of two- and three-dimensional cell culture scaffold. The conventional two-dimensional scaffold is fabricated in advance of cell seeding and the isolated cells are seeded on the surface of scaffold (a). The three-dimensional scaffold cures in the presence of the encapsulated cells. Then, the mixture can be delivered into a mold to gel or directly injected into a defect in the body (b).

Mentions: Fibrin gel is able to function as both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture scaffold [43]. As shown in Figure 3(a), the traditional two-dimensional scaffold is fabricated before cell seeding. After the gelation of fibrin gel, isolated cells are seeded into the surface of fibrin gel [44]. Although the conventional two-dimensional scaffold provides an understanding as to how cells interact with the fibrin gel surface, it cannot mimic the natural physiological environment of cells in vivo. Three-dimensional scaffolds become popular because of their ability to be a model of tissue physiology and provide a better understanding on the interaction of cell and matrix, as well as how the cell-matrix interaction affects cell function. Moreover, it is essential that such a system has a potential to be developed to engineer functional tissue. Three-dimensional scaffolds are fabricated as described in Figure 3(b). Isolated cells are first suspended in the scaffold precursor solution. Then, the mixture will be delivered into a mold and culture for several minutes to complete the gelation. After the gelation, the construct will be cultured for days for tissue regeneration. Alternatively, the cell-fibrin gel precursor solution mixture can be directly injected into a defect in vivo so that the fibrin gel cures and immobilizes cells for the regeneration for the functional tissues. The application of injectable fibrin gel for cardiac and cartilage tissue engineering is introduced.


Fibrin gel as an injectable biodegradable scaffold and cell carrier for tissue engineering.

Li Y, Meng H, Liu Y, Lee BP - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Schematic illustration of fabrications of two- and three-dimensional cell culture scaffold. The conventional two-dimensional scaffold is fabricated in advance of cell seeding and the isolated cells are seeded on the surface of scaffold (a). The three-dimensional scaffold cures in the presence of the encapsulated cells. Then, the mixture can be delivered into a mold to gel or directly injected into a defect in the body (b).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4380102&req=5

fig3: Schematic illustration of fabrications of two- and three-dimensional cell culture scaffold. The conventional two-dimensional scaffold is fabricated in advance of cell seeding and the isolated cells are seeded on the surface of scaffold (a). The three-dimensional scaffold cures in the presence of the encapsulated cells. Then, the mixture can be delivered into a mold to gel or directly injected into a defect in the body (b).
Mentions: Fibrin gel is able to function as both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture scaffold [43]. As shown in Figure 3(a), the traditional two-dimensional scaffold is fabricated before cell seeding. After the gelation of fibrin gel, isolated cells are seeded into the surface of fibrin gel [44]. Although the conventional two-dimensional scaffold provides an understanding as to how cells interact with the fibrin gel surface, it cannot mimic the natural physiological environment of cells in vivo. Three-dimensional scaffolds become popular because of their ability to be a model of tissue physiology and provide a better understanding on the interaction of cell and matrix, as well as how the cell-matrix interaction affects cell function. Moreover, it is essential that such a system has a potential to be developed to engineer functional tissue. Three-dimensional scaffolds are fabricated as described in Figure 3(b). Isolated cells are first suspended in the scaffold precursor solution. Then, the mixture will be delivered into a mold and culture for several minutes to complete the gelation. After the gelation, the construct will be cultured for days for tissue regeneration. Alternatively, the cell-fibrin gel precursor solution mixture can be directly injected into a defect in vivo so that the fibrin gel cures and immobilizes cells for the regeneration for the functional tissues. The application of injectable fibrin gel for cardiac and cartilage tissue engineering is introduced.

Bottom Line: Additionally, fibrin gel mimics the natural blood-clotting process and self-assembles into a polymer network.The ability for fibrin to cure in situ has been exploited to develop injectable scaffolds for the repair of damaged cardiac and cartilage tissues.Additionally, fibrin gel has been utilized as a cell carrier to protect cells from the forces during the application and cell delivery processes while enhancing the cell viability and tissue regeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA.

ABSTRACT
Due to the increasing needs for organ transplantation and a universal shortage of donated tissues, tissue engineering emerges as a useful approach to engineer functional tissues. Although different synthetic materials have been used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, they have many limitations such as the biocompatibility concerns, the inability to support cell attachment, and undesirable degradation rate. Fibrin gel, a biopolymeric material, provides numerous advantages over synthetic materials in functioning as a tissue engineering scaffold and a cell carrier. Fibrin gel exhibits excellent biocompatibility, promotes cell attachment, and can degrade in a controllable manner. Additionally, fibrin gel mimics the natural blood-clotting process and self-assembles into a polymer network. The ability for fibrin to cure in situ has been exploited to develop injectable scaffolds for the repair of damaged cardiac and cartilage tissues. Additionally, fibrin gel has been utilized as a cell carrier to protect cells from the forces during the application and cell delivery processes while enhancing the cell viability and tissue regeneration. Here, we review the recent advancement in developing fibrin-based biomaterials for the development of injectable tissue engineering scaffold and cell carriers.

Show MeSH