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Ebola virus disease 2013-2014 outbreak in west Africa: an analysis of the epidemic spread and response.

Cenciarelli O, Pietropaoli S, Malizia A, Carestia M, D'Amico F, Sassolini A, Di Giovanni D, Rea S, Gabbarini V, Tamburrini A, Palombi L, Bellecci C, Gaudio P - Int J Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected.In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations.The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00173 Rome, Italy ; International Master Courses in Protection against CBRNe Events, Department of Industrial Engineering and School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00173 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The Ebola virus epidemic burst in West Africa in late 2013, started in Guinea, reached in a few months an alarming diffusion, actually involving several countries (Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Senegal, and Mali). Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected. In the present EVD outbreak, the geographical spread of the virus has followed a new route: the achievement of large urban areas at an early stage of the epidemic has led to an unprecedented diffusion, featuring the largest outbreak of EVD of all time. This has caused significant concerns all over the world: the potential reaching of far countries from endemic areas, mainly through fast transports, induced several countries to issue information documents and health supervision for individuals going to or coming from the areas at risk. In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations. The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Affected nations (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) divided in the respective administrative areas. Guinea, light grey, 34 prefectures, numbers from 1 to 34; Liberia, 15 countries, mild grey, Roman numerals from I to XV; Sierra Leone, dark grey, 14 districts, letters from a to n. Stars indicate the capital cities; red star, Conakry; green star, Monrovia; blue star, Freetown. (b) In the panel the regions in which each country is suborganized are reported.
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fig4: (a) Affected nations (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) divided in the respective administrative areas. Guinea, light grey, 34 prefectures, numbers from 1 to 34; Liberia, 15 countries, mild grey, Roman numerals from I to XV; Sierra Leone, dark grey, 14 districts, letters from a to n. Stars indicate the capital cities; red star, Conakry; green star, Monrovia; blue star, Freetown. (b) In the panel the regions in which each country is suborganized are reported.

Mentions: In order to evaluate the geographical spread of the EVD epidemic, reports issued at the same dates already taken in account to determine the number of cases and deaths by WHO and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used. The affected nations from the bursting until the middle of August 2014 (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) were divided in the respective administrative areas, as shown in Figure 4. Guinea includes 33 prefectures, in addition to the capital Conakry. Liberia is divided into 15 countries, while Sierra Leone is divided into 12 districts plus the urban and the rural west areas that divided the capital Freetown into two additional districts.


Ebola virus disease 2013-2014 outbreak in west Africa: an analysis of the epidemic spread and response.

Cenciarelli O, Pietropaoli S, Malizia A, Carestia M, D'Amico F, Sassolini A, Di Giovanni D, Rea S, Gabbarini V, Tamburrini A, Palombi L, Bellecci C, Gaudio P - Int J Microbiol (2015)

(a) Affected nations (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) divided in the respective administrative areas. Guinea, light grey, 34 prefectures, numbers from 1 to 34; Liberia, 15 countries, mild grey, Roman numerals from I to XV; Sierra Leone, dark grey, 14 districts, letters from a to n. Stars indicate the capital cities; red star, Conakry; green star, Monrovia; blue star, Freetown. (b) In the panel the regions in which each country is suborganized are reported.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4380098&req=5

fig4: (a) Affected nations (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) divided in the respective administrative areas. Guinea, light grey, 34 prefectures, numbers from 1 to 34; Liberia, 15 countries, mild grey, Roman numerals from I to XV; Sierra Leone, dark grey, 14 districts, letters from a to n. Stars indicate the capital cities; red star, Conakry; green star, Monrovia; blue star, Freetown. (b) In the panel the regions in which each country is suborganized are reported.
Mentions: In order to evaluate the geographical spread of the EVD epidemic, reports issued at the same dates already taken in account to determine the number of cases and deaths by WHO and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used. The affected nations from the bursting until the middle of August 2014 (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) were divided in the respective administrative areas, as shown in Figure 4. Guinea includes 33 prefectures, in addition to the capital Conakry. Liberia is divided into 15 countries, while Sierra Leone is divided into 12 districts plus the urban and the rural west areas that divided the capital Freetown into two additional districts.

Bottom Line: Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected.In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations.The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00173 Rome, Italy ; International Master Courses in Protection against CBRNe Events, Department of Industrial Engineering and School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00173 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The Ebola virus epidemic burst in West Africa in late 2013, started in Guinea, reached in a few months an alarming diffusion, actually involving several countries (Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Senegal, and Mali). Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected. In the present EVD outbreak, the geographical spread of the virus has followed a new route: the achievement of large urban areas at an early stage of the epidemic has led to an unprecedented diffusion, featuring the largest outbreak of EVD of all time. This has caused significant concerns all over the world: the potential reaching of far countries from endemic areas, mainly through fast transports, induced several countries to issue information documents and health supervision for individuals going to or coming from the areas at risk. In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations. The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus