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Ebola virus disease 2013-2014 outbreak in west Africa: an analysis of the epidemic spread and response.

Cenciarelli O, Pietropaoli S, Malizia A, Carestia M, D'Amico F, Sassolini A, Di Giovanni D, Rea S, Gabbarini V, Tamburrini A, Palombi L, Bellecci C, Gaudio P - Int J Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected.In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations.The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00173 Rome, Italy ; International Master Courses in Protection against CBRNe Events, Department of Industrial Engineering and School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00173 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The Ebola virus epidemic burst in West Africa in late 2013, started in Guinea, reached in a few months an alarming diffusion, actually involving several countries (Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Senegal, and Mali). Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected. In the present EVD outbreak, the geographical spread of the virus has followed a new route: the achievement of large urban areas at an early stage of the epidemic has led to an unprecedented diffusion, featuring the largest outbreak of EVD of all time. This has caused significant concerns all over the world: the potential reaching of far countries from endemic areas, mainly through fast transports, induced several countries to issue information documents and health supervision for individuals going to or coming from the areas at risk. In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations. The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time trend of compatible EVD deaths (confirmed, white bars; probable and suspected, grey bars) in affected countries Guinea (a), Liberia (b), and Sierra Leone (c) according to the periods reported in Table 1. Red numbers over each bar represent the total amount of all compatible deaths (confirmed, probable, and suspected) for each period. * in (a) indicates that in the relative WHO reports the distinction between confirmed and unconfirmed cases was not made. ** in (b) indicates that in the relative WHO report notices about the cases progression in Liberia were not reported.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig3: Time trend of compatible EVD deaths (confirmed, white bars; probable and suspected, grey bars) in affected countries Guinea (a), Liberia (b), and Sierra Leone (c) according to the periods reported in Table 1. Red numbers over each bar represent the total amount of all compatible deaths (confirmed, probable, and suspected) for each period. * in (a) indicates that in the relative WHO reports the distinction between confirmed and unconfirmed cases was not made. ** in (b) indicates that in the relative WHO report notices about the cases progression in Liberia were not reported.

Mentions: In Figures 2 and 3, the increments for each nation of the compatible (confirmed + probable and suspected) cases and deaths, respectively, are shown. WHO classified as confirmed any suspected or probable case with a positive laboratory result; as probable any suspected case evaluated by a clinician, or any deceased suspected case having an epidemiological link with a confirmed case where it has not been possible to collect specimens for laboratory confirmation; and as suspected any individuals suffering or having suffered from sudden onset of high fever and having had contact with a suspected, probable, or confirmed case, or a dead or sick animal, or any person with sudden onset of high fever and at least three of the EVD symptoms [15].


Ebola virus disease 2013-2014 outbreak in west Africa: an analysis of the epidemic spread and response.

Cenciarelli O, Pietropaoli S, Malizia A, Carestia M, D'Amico F, Sassolini A, Di Giovanni D, Rea S, Gabbarini V, Tamburrini A, Palombi L, Bellecci C, Gaudio P - Int J Microbiol (2015)

Time trend of compatible EVD deaths (confirmed, white bars; probable and suspected, grey bars) in affected countries Guinea (a), Liberia (b), and Sierra Leone (c) according to the periods reported in Table 1. Red numbers over each bar represent the total amount of all compatible deaths (confirmed, probable, and suspected) for each period. * in (a) indicates that in the relative WHO reports the distinction between confirmed and unconfirmed cases was not made. ** in (b) indicates that in the relative WHO report notices about the cases progression in Liberia were not reported.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4380098&req=5

fig3: Time trend of compatible EVD deaths (confirmed, white bars; probable and suspected, grey bars) in affected countries Guinea (a), Liberia (b), and Sierra Leone (c) according to the periods reported in Table 1. Red numbers over each bar represent the total amount of all compatible deaths (confirmed, probable, and suspected) for each period. * in (a) indicates that in the relative WHO reports the distinction between confirmed and unconfirmed cases was not made. ** in (b) indicates that in the relative WHO report notices about the cases progression in Liberia were not reported.
Mentions: In Figures 2 and 3, the increments for each nation of the compatible (confirmed + probable and suspected) cases and deaths, respectively, are shown. WHO classified as confirmed any suspected or probable case with a positive laboratory result; as probable any suspected case evaluated by a clinician, or any deceased suspected case having an epidemiological link with a confirmed case where it has not been possible to collect specimens for laboratory confirmation; and as suspected any individuals suffering or having suffered from sudden onset of high fever and having had contact with a suspected, probable, or confirmed case, or a dead or sick animal, or any person with sudden onset of high fever and at least three of the EVD symptoms [15].

Bottom Line: Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected.In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations.The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00173 Rome, Italy ; International Master Courses in Protection against CBRNe Events, Department of Industrial Engineering and School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00173 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The Ebola virus epidemic burst in West Africa in late 2013, started in Guinea, reached in a few months an alarming diffusion, actually involving several countries (Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Senegal, and Mali). Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected. In the present EVD outbreak, the geographical spread of the virus has followed a new route: the achievement of large urban areas at an early stage of the epidemic has led to an unprecedented diffusion, featuring the largest outbreak of EVD of all time. This has caused significant concerns all over the world: the potential reaching of far countries from endemic areas, mainly through fast transports, induced several countries to issue information documents and health supervision for individuals going to or coming from the areas at risk. In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations. The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus