Evaluation of chemical phototoxicity, focusing on phosphorylated histone H2AX.
Bottom Line: Therefore, γ-H2AX is currently attracting attention as a new biomarker for detecting various genotoxic insults.We have determined the toxic impact of various environmental stresses such as chemicals, light and/or their coexposure using γ-H2AX, and found that the γ-H2AX assay exhibited high sensitivity and a low false-positive rate as a detection system of genotoxic potential.In this review, we introduced our recent findings concerning the evaluation of chemical phototoxicity, focusing on γ-H2AX.
Affiliation: Graduate Division of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Fig. 5A shows the formation of γ-H2AX 4 h after treatment with 8-MOP under UVA exposure (edited figure from J Invest Dermatol 2011;131:1313–21 ). γ-H2AX foci within the nucleus were clearly detected as discrete dots. Cells having >10 foci were significantly increased by the treatment with 8-MOP and UVA, which was 8-MOP-dose-dependent and detectable at 10−9 M. The generation of γ-H2AX was also detected by western blotting from a concentration of 10−9 M, similar to the results of immunofluorescence staining (Fig. 5B). γ-H2AX was also generated after a treatment with the weak phototoxic chemical 6-MC at a concentration of 10−7 M (Fig. 5C). On the other hand, the non-phototoxic compound SDS could not generate γ-H2AX, even at the high doses (Fig. 5D).Fig. 5.
Affiliation: Graduate Division of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan firstname.lastname@example.org.