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Stimulated myoblast differentiation on graphene oxide-impregnated PLGA-collagen hybrid fibre matrices.

Shin YC, Lee JH, Jin L, Kim MJ, Kim YJ, Hyun JK, Jung TG, Hong SW, Han DW - J Nanobiotechnology (2015)

Bottom Line: Electrospinning is a simple and effective method for fabricating micro- and nanofiber matrices.In addition, the hydrophilicity of the fabricated matrices was significantly increased by blending with a small amount of Col and GO.Taking our findings into consideration, it is suggested that the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid fibre matrices can be exploited as potential biomimetic scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration because these GO-impregnated hybrid matrices have potent effects on the induction of spontaneous myogenesis and exhibit superior bioactivity and biocompatibility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering & BK21+ Nano-Integrated Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735, South Korea. choel15@naver.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Electrospinning is a simple and effective method for fabricating micro- and nanofiber matrices. Electrospun fibre matrices have numerous advantages for use as tissue engineering scaffolds, such as high surface area-to-volume ratio, mass production capability and structural similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Therefore, electrospun matrices, which are composed of biocompatible polymers and various biomaterials, have been developed as biomimetic scaffolds for the tissue engineering applications. In particular, graphene oxide (GO) has recently been considered as a novel biomaterial for skeletal muscle regeneration because it can promote the growth and differentiation of myoblasts. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to fabricate the hybrid fibre matrices that stimulate myoblasts differentiation for skeletal muscle regeneration.

Results: Hybrid fibre matrices composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) and collagen (Col) impregnated with GO (GO-PLGA-Col) were successfully fabricated using an electrospinning process. Our results indicated that the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid matrices were comprised of randomly-oriented continuous fibres with a three-dimensional non-woven porous structure. Compositional analysis showed that GO was dispersed uniformly throughout the GO-PLGA-Col matrices. In addition, the hydrophilicity of the fabricated matrices was significantly increased by blending with a small amount of Col and GO. The attachment and proliferation of the C2C12 skeletal myoblasts were significantly enhanced on the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid matrices. Furthermore, the GO-PLGA-Col matrices stimulated the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 skeletal myoblasts, which was enhanced further under the culture conditions of the differentiation media.

Conclusions: Taking our findings into consideration, it is suggested that the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid fibre matrices can be exploited as potential biomimetic scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration because these GO-impregnated hybrid matrices have potent effects on the induction of spontaneous myogenesis and exhibit superior bioactivity and biocompatibility.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Surface morphological and topographical images of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices. (A) FESEM images and (B) AFM images of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices. All photographs shown in this figure are representative of six independent experiments with similar results. (C) Correlation between fibre diameter of matrices and their surface roughness (Ra). The different letters in (C) denote the significant differences between each experimental group, p < 0.05. If two groups have the same single letter (a, b), there is no significant difference between them.
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Fig2: Surface morphological and topographical images of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices. (A) FESEM images and (B) AFM images of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices. All photographs shown in this figure are representative of six independent experiments with similar results. (C) Correlation between fibre diameter of matrices and their surface roughness (Ra). The different letters in (C) denote the significant differences between each experimental group, p < 0.05. If two groups have the same single letter (a, b), there is no significant difference between them.

Mentions: GO-PLGA-Col hybrid fibre matrices were prepared by electrospinning the admixture of PLGA and Col blended with GO. The matrices contained a large number of black spots scattered throughout the matrix due to impregnated GO (Figure 1). The physicochemical properties of the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid matrices were characterised by FESEM, AFM and FT-IR spectroscopy. As shown in Figure 2A, FESEM images showed that all matrices had a three-dimensional network structure with interconnected pores similar to that of the natural ECM. The diameter of the GO-PLGA-Col fibres showed a wide range between 100 and 950 nm with the average diameter of 440 nm due to the random alternation of Col and PLGA as well as GO impregnation. The average diameter of the hybrid fibres substantially decreased when GO, Col or both were blended with PLGA. A series of evidence supports this result, showing that the average diameter of the PLGA fibres blended with GO or Col is much smaller than that of pure PLGA fibres [28,29]. This phenomenon can be explained partly by the fact that the viscosity of the electrospinning solution was decreased due to the blending of GO and/or Col [30]. The surface topography of each fibre matrix correlated well with its own FESEM image (Figure 2B). The average surface roughness (Ra) of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices was 1.30, 0.58, 0.75, and 0.52 μm, respectively. The surface roughness of the matrices was closely related to the fibre diameter (Figure 2C). Some previous studies have revealed that the surface roughness of the fibrous matrices decreases with decreasing diameter of the constituent fibre [31,32]. Furthermore, there is a general tendency that the surface-area-to-volume ratio of matrices increases with decreasing fibre diameter [33]. Therefore, it is suggested that GO-PLGA-Col matrices would interact easily with the cells due to their increased surface-area-to-volume ratio.Figure 1


Stimulated myoblast differentiation on graphene oxide-impregnated PLGA-collagen hybrid fibre matrices.

Shin YC, Lee JH, Jin L, Kim MJ, Kim YJ, Hyun JK, Jung TG, Hong SW, Han DW - J Nanobiotechnology (2015)

Surface morphological and topographical images of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices. (A) FESEM images and (B) AFM images of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices. All photographs shown in this figure are representative of six independent experiments with similar results. (C) Correlation between fibre diameter of matrices and their surface roughness (Ra). The different letters in (C) denote the significant differences between each experimental group, p < 0.05. If two groups have the same single letter (a, b), there is no significant difference between them.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4379947&req=5

Fig2: Surface morphological and topographical images of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices. (A) FESEM images and (B) AFM images of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices. All photographs shown in this figure are representative of six independent experiments with similar results. (C) Correlation between fibre diameter of matrices and their surface roughness (Ra). The different letters in (C) denote the significant differences between each experimental group, p < 0.05. If two groups have the same single letter (a, b), there is no significant difference between them.
Mentions: GO-PLGA-Col hybrid fibre matrices were prepared by electrospinning the admixture of PLGA and Col blended with GO. The matrices contained a large number of black spots scattered throughout the matrix due to impregnated GO (Figure 1). The physicochemical properties of the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid matrices were characterised by FESEM, AFM and FT-IR spectroscopy. As shown in Figure 2A, FESEM images showed that all matrices had a three-dimensional network structure with interconnected pores similar to that of the natural ECM. The diameter of the GO-PLGA-Col fibres showed a wide range between 100 and 950 nm with the average diameter of 440 nm due to the random alternation of Col and PLGA as well as GO impregnation. The average diameter of the hybrid fibres substantially decreased when GO, Col or both were blended with PLGA. A series of evidence supports this result, showing that the average diameter of the PLGA fibres blended with GO or Col is much smaller than that of pure PLGA fibres [28,29]. This phenomenon can be explained partly by the fact that the viscosity of the electrospinning solution was decreased due to the blending of GO and/or Col [30]. The surface topography of each fibre matrix correlated well with its own FESEM image (Figure 2B). The average surface roughness (Ra) of PLGA, GO-PLGA, PLGA-Col, and GO-PLGA-Col fibre matrices was 1.30, 0.58, 0.75, and 0.52 μm, respectively. The surface roughness of the matrices was closely related to the fibre diameter (Figure 2C). Some previous studies have revealed that the surface roughness of the fibrous matrices decreases with decreasing diameter of the constituent fibre [31,32]. Furthermore, there is a general tendency that the surface-area-to-volume ratio of matrices increases with decreasing fibre diameter [33]. Therefore, it is suggested that GO-PLGA-Col matrices would interact easily with the cells due to their increased surface-area-to-volume ratio.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Electrospinning is a simple and effective method for fabricating micro- and nanofiber matrices.In addition, the hydrophilicity of the fabricated matrices was significantly increased by blending with a small amount of Col and GO.Taking our findings into consideration, it is suggested that the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid fibre matrices can be exploited as potential biomimetic scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration because these GO-impregnated hybrid matrices have potent effects on the induction of spontaneous myogenesis and exhibit superior bioactivity and biocompatibility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering & BK21+ Nano-Integrated Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735, South Korea. choel15@naver.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Electrospinning is a simple and effective method for fabricating micro- and nanofiber matrices. Electrospun fibre matrices have numerous advantages for use as tissue engineering scaffolds, such as high surface area-to-volume ratio, mass production capability and structural similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Therefore, electrospun matrices, which are composed of biocompatible polymers and various biomaterials, have been developed as biomimetic scaffolds for the tissue engineering applications. In particular, graphene oxide (GO) has recently been considered as a novel biomaterial for skeletal muscle regeneration because it can promote the growth and differentiation of myoblasts. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to fabricate the hybrid fibre matrices that stimulate myoblasts differentiation for skeletal muscle regeneration.

Results: Hybrid fibre matrices composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) and collagen (Col) impregnated with GO (GO-PLGA-Col) were successfully fabricated using an electrospinning process. Our results indicated that the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid matrices were comprised of randomly-oriented continuous fibres with a three-dimensional non-woven porous structure. Compositional analysis showed that GO was dispersed uniformly throughout the GO-PLGA-Col matrices. In addition, the hydrophilicity of the fabricated matrices was significantly increased by blending with a small amount of Col and GO. The attachment and proliferation of the C2C12 skeletal myoblasts were significantly enhanced on the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid matrices. Furthermore, the GO-PLGA-Col matrices stimulated the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 skeletal myoblasts, which was enhanced further under the culture conditions of the differentiation media.

Conclusions: Taking our findings into consideration, it is suggested that the GO-PLGA-Col hybrid fibre matrices can be exploited as potential biomimetic scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering and regeneration because these GO-impregnated hybrid matrices have potent effects on the induction of spontaneous myogenesis and exhibit superior bioactivity and biocompatibility.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus