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The neural milieu of the developing choroid plexus: neural stem cells, neurons and innervation.

Prasongchean W, Vernay B, Asgarian Z, Jannatul N, Ferretti P - Front Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, we found that extrinsic innervation is present in the developing choroid plexus, unlike previously suggested.Altogether, our data are consistent with the presence of neural progenitors within the choroid plexus, suggest that at least some of the choroid plexus neurons are born locally, and show for the first time that choroid plexus innervation occurs prenatally.Hence, we propose the existence of a complex neural regulatory network within the developing choroid plexus that may play a crucial role in modulating its function during development as well as throughout life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London London, UK ; Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
The choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in brain homeostasis both pre and postnatally. In vitro studies have suggested that cells from adult choroid plexus have stem/progenitor cell-like properties. Our initial aim was to investigate whether such a cell population is present in vivo during development of the choroid plexus, focusing mainly on the chick choroid plexus. Cells expressing neural markers were indeed present in the choroid plexus of chick and also those of rodent and human embryos, both within their epithelium and mesenchyme. ß3-tubulin-positive cells with neuronal morphology could be detected as early as at E8 in chick choroid plexus and their morphological complexity increased with development. Whole mount immunochemistry demonstrated the presence of neurons throughout choroid plexus development and they appeared to be mainly catecholaminergic, as indicated by tyrosine-hydroxylase reactivity. The presence of cells co-labeling for BrdU and the neuroblast marker, doublecortin, in organotypic choroid plexus cultures supported the hypothesis that neurogenesis can occur from neural precursors within the developing choroid plexus. Furthermore, we found that extrinsic innervation is present in the developing choroid plexus, unlike previously suggested. Altogether, our data are consistent with the presence of neural progenitors within the choroid plexus, suggest that at least some of the choroid plexus neurons are born locally, and show for the first time that choroid plexus innervation occurs prenatally. Hence, we propose the existence of a complex neural regulatory network within the developing choroid plexus that may play a crucial role in modulating its function during development as well as throughout life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression of β3-tubulin in whole mount E12 chick CP. The nerve bundle in the CP stalk is indicated by the arrow and some neurons within the CP are boxed. Scale bars = 500 μm.
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Figure 5: Expression of β3-tubulin in whole mount E12 chick CP. The nerve bundle in the CP stalk is indicated by the arrow and some neurons within the CP are boxed. Scale bars = 500 μm.

Mentions: We then wished to establish when these neurons first appeared in the CP and whether they were a transient or a stable feature of the CP. Hence we stained chick CPs for β3-tubulin at E6, E8, E10, E18, E19, and E20 (Figures 4–6, Supplementary Figure 1). We were unable to identify the CP at E6, but at E8 a small CP was clearly visible, and it was found to contain neurons as indicated by β3-tubulin staining and morphological appearance (Figure 4). At this stage β3-tubulin staining was observed also in some cells spanning the CP epithelium and contacting the CSF; some thin β3-tubulin fibers that appeared to project into the CSF were also observed at E8 as well as at later stages when double-labeling for ß3-tubulin and the tight junction marker, ZO-1, was carried out (Figure 4, Movie 2). Furthermore, nerve fibers that appeared to be entering the CP mesenchyme were observed at E8 as well as at E12 (Figures 4, 5).


The neural milieu of the developing choroid plexus: neural stem cells, neurons and innervation.

Prasongchean W, Vernay B, Asgarian Z, Jannatul N, Ferretti P - Front Neurosci (2015)

Expression of β3-tubulin in whole mount E12 chick CP. The nerve bundle in the CP stalk is indicated by the arrow and some neurons within the CP are boxed. Scale bars = 500 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4379892&req=5

Figure 5: Expression of β3-tubulin in whole mount E12 chick CP. The nerve bundle in the CP stalk is indicated by the arrow and some neurons within the CP are boxed. Scale bars = 500 μm.
Mentions: We then wished to establish when these neurons first appeared in the CP and whether they were a transient or a stable feature of the CP. Hence we stained chick CPs for β3-tubulin at E6, E8, E10, E18, E19, and E20 (Figures 4–6, Supplementary Figure 1). We were unable to identify the CP at E6, but at E8 a small CP was clearly visible, and it was found to contain neurons as indicated by β3-tubulin staining and morphological appearance (Figure 4). At this stage β3-tubulin staining was observed also in some cells spanning the CP epithelium and contacting the CSF; some thin β3-tubulin fibers that appeared to project into the CSF were also observed at E8 as well as at later stages when double-labeling for ß3-tubulin and the tight junction marker, ZO-1, was carried out (Figure 4, Movie 2). Furthermore, nerve fibers that appeared to be entering the CP mesenchyme were observed at E8 as well as at E12 (Figures 4, 5).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, we found that extrinsic innervation is present in the developing choroid plexus, unlike previously suggested.Altogether, our data are consistent with the presence of neural progenitors within the choroid plexus, suggest that at least some of the choroid plexus neurons are born locally, and show for the first time that choroid plexus innervation occurs prenatally.Hence, we propose the existence of a complex neural regulatory network within the developing choroid plexus that may play a crucial role in modulating its function during development as well as throughout life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London London, UK ; Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
The choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in brain homeostasis both pre and postnatally. In vitro studies have suggested that cells from adult choroid plexus have stem/progenitor cell-like properties. Our initial aim was to investigate whether such a cell population is present in vivo during development of the choroid plexus, focusing mainly on the chick choroid plexus. Cells expressing neural markers were indeed present in the choroid plexus of chick and also those of rodent and human embryos, both within their epithelium and mesenchyme. ß3-tubulin-positive cells with neuronal morphology could be detected as early as at E8 in chick choroid plexus and their morphological complexity increased with development. Whole mount immunochemistry demonstrated the presence of neurons throughout choroid plexus development and they appeared to be mainly catecholaminergic, as indicated by tyrosine-hydroxylase reactivity. The presence of cells co-labeling for BrdU and the neuroblast marker, doublecortin, in organotypic choroid plexus cultures supported the hypothesis that neurogenesis can occur from neural precursors within the developing choroid plexus. Furthermore, we found that extrinsic innervation is present in the developing choroid plexus, unlike previously suggested. Altogether, our data are consistent with the presence of neural progenitors within the choroid plexus, suggest that at least some of the choroid plexus neurons are born locally, and show for the first time that choroid plexus innervation occurs prenatally. Hence, we propose the existence of a complex neural regulatory network within the developing choroid plexus that may play a crucial role in modulating its function during development as well as throughout life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus