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Neural mechanisms of negative reinforcement in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

Damiano CR, Cockrell DC, Dunlap K, Hanna EK, Miller S, Bizzell J, Kovac M, Turner-Brown L, Sideris J, Kinard J, Dichter GS - J Neurodev Disord (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that children with ASD demonstrated hypoactivation of the right caudate nucleus while anticipating non-social negative reinforcement and hypoactivation of a network of frontostriatal regions (including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) while anticipating social negative reinforcement.In addition, activation of the right caudate nucleus during non-social negative reinforcement was associated with individual differences in social motivation.These results suggest that atypical responding to negative reinforcement in children with ASD may contribute to social motivational deficits in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB #3270, Davie Hall, 27599-3270 Chapel Hill, NC USA ; Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, CB #7255, 27599-7255 Chapel Hill, NC USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research has found accumulating evidence for atypical reward processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), particularly in the context of social rewards. Yet, this line of research has focused largely on positive social reinforcement, while little is known about the processing of negative reinforcement in individuals with ASD.

Methods: The present study examined neural responses to social negative reinforcement (a face displaying negative affect) and non-social negative reinforcement (monetary loss) in children with ASD relative to typically developing children, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Results: We found that children with ASD demonstrated hypoactivation of the right caudate nucleus while anticipating non-social negative reinforcement and hypoactivation of a network of frontostriatal regions (including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) while anticipating social negative reinforcement. In addition, activation of the right caudate nucleus during non-social negative reinforcement was associated with individual differences in social motivation.

Conclusions: These results suggest that atypical responding to negative reinforcement in children with ASD may contribute to social motivational deficits in this population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Exploratory correlation between the SRS social motivation subscale and the magnitude of activation in the right caudate nucleus (structural ROI) during the anticipation of monetary loss across both groups.
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Fig6: Exploratory correlation between the SRS social motivation subscale and the magnitude of activation in the right caudate nucleus (structural ROI) during the anticipation of monetary loss across both groups.

Mentions: Exploratory correlations were examined among SRS scores (both total t-scores and social motivation subscale scores) and structural ROIs in the ventral and dorsal striatum (right and left NAc, right and left caudate nucleus, and right and left putamen) across both groups. No significant correlations were found among the structural ROIs and SRS total t-scores, all P’s > .05. A positive correlation was detected between the SRS social motivation subscale and the magnitude of activation in the right caudate nucleus while anticipating monetary loss, r(43) = −.37, P = .012 (see Figure 6). No significant correlations were detected between scores on the SRS social motivation subscale and the magnitude of activation in any structural ROIs while anticipating sad faces, all P’s > .05. We did not include correlational analyses between functional regions that differentiated groups and ASD symptoms because of the potential for non-independence between functional ROIs defined on the basis of group differences in activation and SRS scores that were correlated with group statusa [66].Figure 6


Neural mechanisms of negative reinforcement in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

Damiano CR, Cockrell DC, Dunlap K, Hanna EK, Miller S, Bizzell J, Kovac M, Turner-Brown L, Sideris J, Kinard J, Dichter GS - J Neurodev Disord (2015)

Exploratory correlation between the SRS social motivation subscale and the magnitude of activation in the right caudate nucleus (structural ROI) during the anticipation of monetary loss across both groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4379694&req=5

Fig6: Exploratory correlation between the SRS social motivation subscale and the magnitude of activation in the right caudate nucleus (structural ROI) during the anticipation of monetary loss across both groups.
Mentions: Exploratory correlations were examined among SRS scores (both total t-scores and social motivation subscale scores) and structural ROIs in the ventral and dorsal striatum (right and left NAc, right and left caudate nucleus, and right and left putamen) across both groups. No significant correlations were found among the structural ROIs and SRS total t-scores, all P’s > .05. A positive correlation was detected between the SRS social motivation subscale and the magnitude of activation in the right caudate nucleus while anticipating monetary loss, r(43) = −.37, P = .012 (see Figure 6). No significant correlations were detected between scores on the SRS social motivation subscale and the magnitude of activation in any structural ROIs while anticipating sad faces, all P’s > .05. We did not include correlational analyses between functional regions that differentiated groups and ASD symptoms because of the potential for non-independence between functional ROIs defined on the basis of group differences in activation and SRS scores that were correlated with group statusa [66].Figure 6

Bottom Line: We found that children with ASD demonstrated hypoactivation of the right caudate nucleus while anticipating non-social negative reinforcement and hypoactivation of a network of frontostriatal regions (including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) while anticipating social negative reinforcement.In addition, activation of the right caudate nucleus during non-social negative reinforcement was associated with individual differences in social motivation.These results suggest that atypical responding to negative reinforcement in children with ASD may contribute to social motivational deficits in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB #3270, Davie Hall, 27599-3270 Chapel Hill, NC USA ; Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, CB #7255, 27599-7255 Chapel Hill, NC USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research has found accumulating evidence for atypical reward processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), particularly in the context of social rewards. Yet, this line of research has focused largely on positive social reinforcement, while little is known about the processing of negative reinforcement in individuals with ASD.

Methods: The present study examined neural responses to social negative reinforcement (a face displaying negative affect) and non-social negative reinforcement (monetary loss) in children with ASD relative to typically developing children, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Results: We found that children with ASD demonstrated hypoactivation of the right caudate nucleus while anticipating non-social negative reinforcement and hypoactivation of a network of frontostriatal regions (including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) while anticipating social negative reinforcement. In addition, activation of the right caudate nucleus during non-social negative reinforcement was associated with individual differences in social motivation.

Conclusions: These results suggest that atypical responding to negative reinforcement in children with ASD may contribute to social motivational deficits in this population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus