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Effects of increasing concentrations of sodium sulfite on deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol sulfonate concentrations of maize kernels and maize meal preserved at various moisture content.

Paulick M, Rempe I, Kersten S, Schatzmayr D, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Dänicke S - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect.Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal.The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. marleen.paulick@fli.bund.de.

ABSTRACT
Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.

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Comparison of the time courses of DON (full line marked with a square) and DONS 2 (dashed line of alternating short and long lines marked with a diamond) and DONS 3 (dashed line marked with a triangle) concentrations in maize preserved with 1.25 g Na2SO3 per kg in dependence on feed matrix (kernels = MK or meal = MM) and moisture content (14% or 30%): (a) MK 14%; (b) MK 30%; (c) MM 14%; (d) MM 30%.
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toxins-07-00791-f002: Comparison of the time courses of DON (full line marked with a square) and DONS 2 (dashed line of alternating short and long lines marked with a diamond) and DONS 3 (dashed line marked with a triangle) concentrations in maize preserved with 1.25 g Na2SO3 per kg in dependence on feed matrix (kernels = MK or meal = MM) and moisture content (14% or 30%): (a) MK 14%; (b) MK 30%; (c) MM 14%; (d) MM 30%.

Mentions: DON reduction was accompanied by a simultaneous formation of DONS 1, 2 and 3 (Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5). The evolution of these derivatives apparently varied in dependence on Na2SO3 dose and other reaction conditions. DONS 1 was only rarely formed in the variants with 30% moisture, while DONS 2 and 3 were detected in almost every variant where Na2SO3 was supplemented. Of particular interest was the fact that DONS 3, which was quickly formed immediately after mixing, decreased continuously with increasing duration of preservation (Figure 4 and Figure 5). Concurrently with the decrease of DONS 3, the concentration of DONS 2 increased strongly (e.g., Figure 4b,d). At lower Na2SO3 additions, the time course of DONS 2 and 3 was similar but less pronounced (Figure 2 and Figure 3). The kinetics of DONS 1, 2 and 3 were described with two statistical models because of the difference in curve progression between DONS 3 and the two others. By means of the two equations, interested regression parameters could be derived (Table 3). On the one hand, the determination of ymax characterized the asymptotic value for DONS 1 and 2 at the end of the preservation duration and on the other hand the maximum concentration of DONS 3 occurred at time tmax. The tmax corresponding upper limit of DONS 1 only was 2.83 mg/kg DM and 2.16 mg/kg DM for variants MM 30% and MK 30% whereas DONS 2 reached 57.75 mg/kg DM and 56.43 mg/kg DM for MM 30% and MK 30%, respectively. Compared with DONS 3, the maximum concentration of MM 30% and MK 30% already amounted to 48.87 mg/kg DM and 49.71 mg/kg DM after 2.24 days and 2.13 days, respectively. However, after reaching the highest concentration DONS 3 decreased up to preservation end. Hence, the content of DONS 3 after 79 days was 12.52 mg/kg DM and 9.40 mg/kg DM for MM 30% and MK 30%, respectively. Furthermore, the time t1/2AUC (d) for DONS 3 was calculated, indicative of the time where the half of the total area under the curve (AUC) was achieved. Here, no differences between variants MK 14% and 30% as well as MM 30% existed, and t1/2AUC was between 24.29 days and 39.75 days. In contrast, a range between 91 and 784 days was determined for MM 14%.


Effects of increasing concentrations of sodium sulfite on deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol sulfonate concentrations of maize kernels and maize meal preserved at various moisture content.

Paulick M, Rempe I, Kersten S, Schatzmayr D, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Dänicke S - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Comparison of the time courses of DON (full line marked with a square) and DONS 2 (dashed line of alternating short and long lines marked with a diamond) and DONS 3 (dashed line marked with a triangle) concentrations in maize preserved with 1.25 g Na2SO3 per kg in dependence on feed matrix (kernels = MK or meal = MM) and moisture content (14% or 30%): (a) MK 14%; (b) MK 30%; (c) MM 14%; (d) MM 30%.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4379525&req=5

toxins-07-00791-f002: Comparison of the time courses of DON (full line marked with a square) and DONS 2 (dashed line of alternating short and long lines marked with a diamond) and DONS 3 (dashed line marked with a triangle) concentrations in maize preserved with 1.25 g Na2SO3 per kg in dependence on feed matrix (kernels = MK or meal = MM) and moisture content (14% or 30%): (a) MK 14%; (b) MK 30%; (c) MM 14%; (d) MM 30%.
Mentions: DON reduction was accompanied by a simultaneous formation of DONS 1, 2 and 3 (Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5). The evolution of these derivatives apparently varied in dependence on Na2SO3 dose and other reaction conditions. DONS 1 was only rarely formed in the variants with 30% moisture, while DONS 2 and 3 were detected in almost every variant where Na2SO3 was supplemented. Of particular interest was the fact that DONS 3, which was quickly formed immediately after mixing, decreased continuously with increasing duration of preservation (Figure 4 and Figure 5). Concurrently with the decrease of DONS 3, the concentration of DONS 2 increased strongly (e.g., Figure 4b,d). At lower Na2SO3 additions, the time course of DONS 2 and 3 was similar but less pronounced (Figure 2 and Figure 3). The kinetics of DONS 1, 2 and 3 were described with two statistical models because of the difference in curve progression between DONS 3 and the two others. By means of the two equations, interested regression parameters could be derived (Table 3). On the one hand, the determination of ymax characterized the asymptotic value for DONS 1 and 2 at the end of the preservation duration and on the other hand the maximum concentration of DONS 3 occurred at time tmax. The tmax corresponding upper limit of DONS 1 only was 2.83 mg/kg DM and 2.16 mg/kg DM for variants MM 30% and MK 30% whereas DONS 2 reached 57.75 mg/kg DM and 56.43 mg/kg DM for MM 30% and MK 30%, respectively. Compared with DONS 3, the maximum concentration of MM 30% and MK 30% already amounted to 48.87 mg/kg DM and 49.71 mg/kg DM after 2.24 days and 2.13 days, respectively. However, after reaching the highest concentration DONS 3 decreased up to preservation end. Hence, the content of DONS 3 after 79 days was 12.52 mg/kg DM and 9.40 mg/kg DM for MM 30% and MK 30%, respectively. Furthermore, the time t1/2AUC (d) for DONS 3 was calculated, indicative of the time where the half of the total area under the curve (AUC) was achieved. Here, no differences between variants MK 14% and 30% as well as MM 30% existed, and t1/2AUC was between 24.29 days and 39.75 days. In contrast, a range between 91 and 784 days was determined for MM 14%.

Bottom Line: Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect.Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal.The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. marleen.paulick@fli.bund.de.

ABSTRACT
Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus