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Flowering time and seed dormancy control use external coincidence to generate life history strategy.

Springthorpe V, Penfield S - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states.We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy.Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Climate change is accelerating plant developmental transitions coordinated with the seasons in temperate environments. To understand the importance of these timing advances for a stable life history strategy, we constructed a full life cycle model of Arabidopsis thaliana. Modelling and field data reveal that a cryptic function of flowering time control is to limit seed set of winter annuals to an ambient temperature window which coincides with a temperature-sensitive switch in seed dormancy state. This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states. We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy. Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features.

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The growth rate of Arabidopsis Col-0 plant between first flowering and first seed set at photoperiods between 8 and 16 hr daylength at 22°C.Data represent mean and standard error of five plants per treatment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.004
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fig1s1: The growth rate of Arabidopsis Col-0 plant between first flowering and first seed set at photoperiods between 8 and 16 hr daylength at 22°C.Data represent mean and standard error of five plants per treatment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.004

Mentions: Previously, photothermal models have been used to predict Arabidopsis flowering time under field conditions (Wilczek et al., 2009). In order to predict seed set conditions in the wild, we sought to extend this treatment to include the reproductive phase in order to determine the timing of seed set on plants germinated and grown at different times of the year. To parameterize this model, we first grew plants from bolting to first set seed under a range of temperatures under laboratory conditions (Figure 1A). We found a simple linear relationship between temperature and the number of days from bolting to first seed set, showing that seed set timing depended on ambient temperature. Our data suggested that seed set was much less dependent on photoperiod, with only photoperiods of 8 hr significantly delaying seed set (Figure 1—figure supplement 1). With these data, we constructed and optimized a thermal time model from first flowering to first seed set, and compared the predicted timing of seed set to that of plants setting seed under field conditions in York, UK in 2012 and 2013 (Figure 1B). The model was a good predictor of seed set timing in the field (R2 = 0.43) for seed set in York in 2012 and 2013, and outperformed models that also included photoperiod components. By combining this with a previously published bolting time model (Wilczek et al., 2009), we could predict Col-0 first seed set date for any germination date.10.7554/eLife.05557.003Figure 1.Flowering time and seed set control constrain mean temperature at seed shedding for winter and spring annuals.


Flowering time and seed dormancy control use external coincidence to generate life history strategy.

Springthorpe V, Penfield S - Elife (2015)

The growth rate of Arabidopsis Col-0 plant between first flowering and first seed set at photoperiods between 8 and 16 hr daylength at 22°C.Data represent mean and standard error of five plants per treatment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.004
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4378508&req=5

fig1s1: The growth rate of Arabidopsis Col-0 plant between first flowering and first seed set at photoperiods between 8 and 16 hr daylength at 22°C.Data represent mean and standard error of five plants per treatment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.004
Mentions: Previously, photothermal models have been used to predict Arabidopsis flowering time under field conditions (Wilczek et al., 2009). In order to predict seed set conditions in the wild, we sought to extend this treatment to include the reproductive phase in order to determine the timing of seed set on plants germinated and grown at different times of the year. To parameterize this model, we first grew plants from bolting to first set seed under a range of temperatures under laboratory conditions (Figure 1A). We found a simple linear relationship between temperature and the number of days from bolting to first seed set, showing that seed set timing depended on ambient temperature. Our data suggested that seed set was much less dependent on photoperiod, with only photoperiods of 8 hr significantly delaying seed set (Figure 1—figure supplement 1). With these data, we constructed and optimized a thermal time model from first flowering to first seed set, and compared the predicted timing of seed set to that of plants setting seed under field conditions in York, UK in 2012 and 2013 (Figure 1B). The model was a good predictor of seed set timing in the field (R2 = 0.43) for seed set in York in 2012 and 2013, and outperformed models that also included photoperiod components. By combining this with a previously published bolting time model (Wilczek et al., 2009), we could predict Col-0 first seed set date for any germination date.10.7554/eLife.05557.003Figure 1.Flowering time and seed set control constrain mean temperature at seed shedding for winter and spring annuals.

Bottom Line: This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states.We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy.Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Climate change is accelerating plant developmental transitions coordinated with the seasons in temperate environments. To understand the importance of these timing advances for a stable life history strategy, we constructed a full life cycle model of Arabidopsis thaliana. Modelling and field data reveal that a cryptic function of flowering time control is to limit seed set of winter annuals to an ambient temperature window which coincides with a temperature-sensitive switch in seed dormancy state. This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states. We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy. Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features.

Show MeSH