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Flowering time and seed dormancy control use external coincidence to generate life history strategy.

Springthorpe V, Penfield S - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states.We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy.Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Climate change is accelerating plant developmental transitions coordinated with the seasons in temperate environments. To understand the importance of these timing advances for a stable life history strategy, we constructed a full life cycle model of Arabidopsis thaliana. Modelling and field data reveal that a cryptic function of flowering time control is to limit seed set of winter annuals to an ambient temperature window which coincides with a temperature-sensitive switch in seed dormancy state. This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states. We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy. Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features.

Show MeSH
Field emergence time in 2013/14 of Col-0 seed set in the laboratory at 15°C or set in the field in York in spring 2013.Data represent the total percentage emergence at 2 weekly intervals of 500 seeds sown for each experiment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.014
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fig6: Field emergence time in 2013/14 of Col-0 seed set in the laboratory at 15°C or set in the field in York in spring 2013.Data represent the total percentage emergence at 2 weekly intervals of 500 seeds sown for each experiment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.014

Mentions: Col-0 germination in autumn or spring gives a similar flowering date in May. This suggests that Col-0 can operate equally well as a summer or winter annual. This prediction is supported by field emergence data, which shows that seed set in the laboratory at 15°C or seed set in the field conditions germinate in the soil in both autumn and spring emergence windows (Figure 6). This bet-hedging strategy can therefore be relevant to both summer and winter annual accessions. Previously it has been shown that seeds of the Cape Verde Island accession germinate only in an autumn emergence window in central England (Footitt et al., 2011), whereas accession Bur-0 shows only a spring emergence window (Footitt et al., 2013). However, our work shows that winter and spring annual behaviour does not necessarily require different genotypes and are not mutually exclusive strategies. Both spring and autumn germination windows have also been described in coastal but not montane Spanish populations (Montesinos et al., 2009), suggesting that the strategy employed by Col-0 is of wide relevance in some ecological contexts.10.7554/eLife.05557.014Figure 6.Field emergence time in 2013/14 of Col-0 seed set in the laboratory at 15°C or set in the field in York in spring 2013.


Flowering time and seed dormancy control use external coincidence to generate life history strategy.

Springthorpe V, Penfield S - Elife (2015)

Field emergence time in 2013/14 of Col-0 seed set in the laboratory at 15°C or set in the field in York in spring 2013.Data represent the total percentage emergence at 2 weekly intervals of 500 seeds sown for each experiment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.014
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4378508&req=5

fig6: Field emergence time in 2013/14 of Col-0 seed set in the laboratory at 15°C or set in the field in York in spring 2013.Data represent the total percentage emergence at 2 weekly intervals of 500 seeds sown for each experiment.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05557.014
Mentions: Col-0 germination in autumn or spring gives a similar flowering date in May. This suggests that Col-0 can operate equally well as a summer or winter annual. This prediction is supported by field emergence data, which shows that seed set in the laboratory at 15°C or seed set in the field conditions germinate in the soil in both autumn and spring emergence windows (Figure 6). This bet-hedging strategy can therefore be relevant to both summer and winter annual accessions. Previously it has been shown that seeds of the Cape Verde Island accession germinate only in an autumn emergence window in central England (Footitt et al., 2011), whereas accession Bur-0 shows only a spring emergence window (Footitt et al., 2013). However, our work shows that winter and spring annual behaviour does not necessarily require different genotypes and are not mutually exclusive strategies. Both spring and autumn germination windows have also been described in coastal but not montane Spanish populations (Montesinos et al., 2009), suggesting that the strategy employed by Col-0 is of wide relevance in some ecological contexts.10.7554/eLife.05557.014Figure 6.Field emergence time in 2013/14 of Col-0 seed set in the laboratory at 15°C or set in the field in York in spring 2013.

Bottom Line: This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states.We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy.Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Climate change is accelerating plant developmental transitions coordinated with the seasons in temperate environments. To understand the importance of these timing advances for a stable life history strategy, we constructed a full life cycle model of Arabidopsis thaliana. Modelling and field data reveal that a cryptic function of flowering time control is to limit seed set of winter annuals to an ambient temperature window which coincides with a temperature-sensitive switch in seed dormancy state. This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states. We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy. Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features.

Show MeSH