Norovirus genotype profiles associated with foodborne transmission, 1999-2012.
Bottom Line: Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis.They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments.When these profiles are applied to global outbreak surveillance data, results indicate that ≈14% of all norovirus outbreaks are attributed to food.
Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norovirus transmission and genotyping information from multiple international outbreak surveillance systems (Noronet, CaliciNet, EpiSurv) and from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. The proportion of outbreaks caused by food was determined by genotype and/or genogroup. Analysis resulted in the following final global profiles: foodborne transmission is attributed to 10% (range 9%%-11%) of all genotype GII.4 outbreaks, 27% (25%-30%) of outbreaks caused by all other single genotypes, and 37% (24%%-52%) of outbreaks caused by mixtures of GII.4 and other noroviruses. When these profiles are applied to global outbreak surveillance data, results indicate that ≈14% of all norovirus outbreaks are attributed to food.
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Mentions: The FBVE/Noronet database included 5,583 norovirus outbreaks reported from 22 countries during 1999�?"2012 (Figures 1, 2). Of these, C-type sequence information was available for 4,580 outbreaks, P-type for 2,195 outbreaks, and both types for 1,192 outbreaks. The CaliciNet database included information about 3,094 outbreaks that occurred in the United States during 2009�?"2012; C-type sequence information was available for all outbreaks. The ESR-EpiSurv database included 818 outbreaks reported from New Zealand during 2008�?"2012, of which C-type and P-type information was available for 813 and 685, respectively. Our updated systematic review (Technical Appendix) provided information on 966 norovirus outbreaks, of which genotype and transmission mode information was available for 608 (127 C-type, 107 P-type, 374 both) from 61 countries during 1983�?"2010 (Figures 1, 2). Our updated systematic literature search yielded reports of 320 outbreaks in Japan, 113 in the United States, 500 in other countries, and 18 in multiple countries; country information was missing for 15 outbreaks.