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New adhesive traps to monitor urban mosquitoes with a case study to assess the efficacy of insecticide control strategies in temperate areas.

Caputo B, Ienco A, Manica M, Petrarca V, Rosà R, della Torre A - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: The planning of these interventions, as well as the evaluation of their effectiveness, rarely benefit of adequate monitoring of the mosquito abundance and dynamics.Spatial heterogeneities in the effect of the treatments were also revealed.The results also provide a preliminary indication on the effectiveness of common mosquito control strategies carried out against urban mosquito in European urban areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Università di Roma "Sapienza", Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy. beniamino.caputo@uniroma1.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Urban mosquitoes in temperate regions may represent a high nuisance and are associated with the risk of arbovirus transmission. Common practices to reduce this burden, at least in Italian highly infested urban areas, imply calendar-based larvicide treatments of street catch basins - which represent the main non-removable urban breeding site - and/or insecticide ground spraying. The planning of these interventions, as well as the evaluation of their effectiveness, rarely benefit of adequate monitoring of the mosquito abundance and dynamics. We propose the use of adhesive traps to monitor Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens adults and to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-based control strategies.

Methods: We designed two novel types of adhesive traps to collect adult mosquitoes visiting and/or emerging from catch basins. The Mosquito Emerging Trap (MET) was exploited to assess the efficacy of larvicide treatments. The Catch Basin Trap (CBT) was exploited together with the Sticky Trap (ST, commonly used to collect ovipositing/resting females) to monitor adults abundance in the campus of the University of Rome "Sapienza" - where catch basins were treated with Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) bi-monthly and Low-Volume insecticide spraying were carried out before sunset - and in a nearby control area.

Results: Results obtained by MET showed that, although all monitored diflubenzuron-treated catch basins were repeatedly visited by Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens, adult emergence was inhibited in most basins. Results obtained by ST and CBT showed a significant lower adult abundance in the treated area than in the untreated one after the second adulticide spraying, which was carried out during the major phase of Ae. albopictus population expansion in Rome. Spatial heterogeneities in the effect of the treatments were also revealed.

Conclusions: The results support the potential of the three adhesive traps tested in passively monitoring urban mosquito adult abundance and seasonal dynamics and in assessing the efficacy of control measures. ST showed higher specificity for Ae. albopictus and CBT for Cx. pipiens. The results also provide a preliminary indication on the effectiveness of common mosquito control strategies carried out against urban mosquito in European urban areas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Aedes albopictusandCulex pipienscounts in each of the 18 cells of the insecticide-treated area. Box-plots of adult female and male counts in 2 Sticky-Traps (STs; light grey) and 2 Catch Basin Traps (CBTs; dark grey) in each of the 18 cells of the insecticide-treated area during the 10-week sampling in 2012. The boxes identify the first and third quartiles (the 25th and 75th percentiles). The upper whisker extends from the boxes to the highest value that is within 1.5 * IQR (inter-quartile range: the distance between the first and third quartiles, so the height of the boxes). The lower whisker extends to the lowest value within 1.5 * IQR. Points beyond the end of the whiskers are outliers.
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Fig4: Aedes albopictusandCulex pipienscounts in each of the 18 cells of the insecticide-treated area. Box-plots of adult female and male counts in 2 Sticky-Traps (STs; light grey) and 2 Catch Basin Traps (CBTs; dark grey) in each of the 18 cells of the insecticide-treated area during the 10-week sampling in 2012. The boxes identify the first and third quartiles (the 25th and 75th percentiles). The upper whisker extends from the boxes to the highest value that is within 1.5 * IQR (inter-quartile range: the distance between the first and third quartiles, so the height of the boxes). The lower whisker extends to the lowest value within 1.5 * IQR. Points beyond the end of the whiskers are outliers.

Mentions: Finally, the results of the GLMMs carried out to assess possible spatial differences in mosquitoes counts among the 18 cells within the treated area in the entire 10-week sampling period (Figure 4; Table 5; Additional file 1: Table S7) showed: i) significantly higher mosquito counts in cell-17 and −18; ii) significantly higher Ae. albopictus counts in ST than in CBT in all cells, except cell-18; iii) no difference in Cx. pipiens counts between the two traps in all the cells. Again, in all GLMMs no spatial autocorrelation was observed.Figure 4


New adhesive traps to monitor urban mosquitoes with a case study to assess the efficacy of insecticide control strategies in temperate areas.

Caputo B, Ienco A, Manica M, Petrarca V, Rosà R, della Torre A - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Aedes albopictusandCulex pipienscounts in each of the 18 cells of the insecticide-treated area. Box-plots of adult female and male counts in 2 Sticky-Traps (STs; light grey) and 2 Catch Basin Traps (CBTs; dark grey) in each of the 18 cells of the insecticide-treated area during the 10-week sampling in 2012. The boxes identify the first and third quartiles (the 25th and 75th percentiles). The upper whisker extends from the boxes to the highest value that is within 1.5 * IQR (inter-quartile range: the distance between the first and third quartiles, so the height of the boxes). The lower whisker extends to the lowest value within 1.5 * IQR. Points beyond the end of the whiskers are outliers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4378381&req=5

Fig4: Aedes albopictusandCulex pipienscounts in each of the 18 cells of the insecticide-treated area. Box-plots of adult female and male counts in 2 Sticky-Traps (STs; light grey) and 2 Catch Basin Traps (CBTs; dark grey) in each of the 18 cells of the insecticide-treated area during the 10-week sampling in 2012. The boxes identify the first and third quartiles (the 25th and 75th percentiles). The upper whisker extends from the boxes to the highest value that is within 1.5 * IQR (inter-quartile range: the distance between the first and third quartiles, so the height of the boxes). The lower whisker extends to the lowest value within 1.5 * IQR. Points beyond the end of the whiskers are outliers.
Mentions: Finally, the results of the GLMMs carried out to assess possible spatial differences in mosquitoes counts among the 18 cells within the treated area in the entire 10-week sampling period (Figure 4; Table 5; Additional file 1: Table S7) showed: i) significantly higher mosquito counts in cell-17 and −18; ii) significantly higher Ae. albopictus counts in ST than in CBT in all cells, except cell-18; iii) no difference in Cx. pipiens counts between the two traps in all the cells. Again, in all GLMMs no spatial autocorrelation was observed.Figure 4

Bottom Line: The planning of these interventions, as well as the evaluation of their effectiveness, rarely benefit of adequate monitoring of the mosquito abundance and dynamics.Spatial heterogeneities in the effect of the treatments were also revealed.The results also provide a preliminary indication on the effectiveness of common mosquito control strategies carried out against urban mosquito in European urban areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Università di Roma "Sapienza", Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy. beniamino.caputo@uniroma1.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Urban mosquitoes in temperate regions may represent a high nuisance and are associated with the risk of arbovirus transmission. Common practices to reduce this burden, at least in Italian highly infested urban areas, imply calendar-based larvicide treatments of street catch basins - which represent the main non-removable urban breeding site - and/or insecticide ground spraying. The planning of these interventions, as well as the evaluation of their effectiveness, rarely benefit of adequate monitoring of the mosquito abundance and dynamics. We propose the use of adhesive traps to monitor Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens adults and to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-based control strategies.

Methods: We designed two novel types of adhesive traps to collect adult mosquitoes visiting and/or emerging from catch basins. The Mosquito Emerging Trap (MET) was exploited to assess the efficacy of larvicide treatments. The Catch Basin Trap (CBT) was exploited together with the Sticky Trap (ST, commonly used to collect ovipositing/resting females) to monitor adults abundance in the campus of the University of Rome "Sapienza" - where catch basins were treated with Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) bi-monthly and Low-Volume insecticide spraying were carried out before sunset - and in a nearby control area.

Results: Results obtained by MET showed that, although all monitored diflubenzuron-treated catch basins were repeatedly visited by Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens, adult emergence was inhibited in most basins. Results obtained by ST and CBT showed a significant lower adult abundance in the treated area than in the untreated one after the second adulticide spraying, which was carried out during the major phase of Ae. albopictus population expansion in Rome. Spatial heterogeneities in the effect of the treatments were also revealed.

Conclusions: The results support the potential of the three adhesive traps tested in passively monitoring urban mosquito adult abundance and seasonal dynamics and in assessing the efficacy of control measures. ST showed higher specificity for Ae. albopictus and CBT for Cx. pipiens. The results also provide a preliminary indication on the effectiveness of common mosquito control strategies carried out against urban mosquito in European urban areas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus