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Development of salinity tolerance in rice by constitutive-overexpression of genes involved in the regulation of programmed cell death.

Hoang TM, Moghaddam L, Williams B, Khanna H, Dale J, Mundree SG - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Physiological, biochemical and agronomical analyses of transgenic rice expressing each of the anti-apoptotic genes subjected to salinity treatment demonstrated traits associated with tolerant varieties including, improved photosynthesis, membrane integrity, ion and ROS maintenance systems, growth rate, and yield components.Our results reveal that anti-apoptotic genes facilitate maintenance of metabolic activity at the whole plant level to create favorable conditions for cellular survival.It is these conditions that are crucial and conducive to the plants ability to tolerate/adapt to extreme environments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities, Queensland University of Technology Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Environmental factors contribute to over 70% of crop yield losses worldwide. Of these drought and salinity are the most significant causes of crop yield reduction. Rice is an important staple crop that feeds more than half of the world's population. However among the agronomically important cereals rice is the most sensitive to salinity. In the present study we show that exogenous expression of anti-apoptotic genes from diverse origins, AtBAG4 (Arabidopsis), Hsp70 (Citrus tristeza virus) and p35 (Baculovirus), significantly improves salinity tolerance in rice at the whole plant level. Physiological, biochemical and agronomical analyses of transgenic rice expressing each of the anti-apoptotic genes subjected to salinity treatment demonstrated traits associated with tolerant varieties including, improved photosynthesis, membrane integrity, ion and ROS maintenance systems, growth rate, and yield components. Moreover, FTIR analysis showed that the chemical composition of salinity-treated transgenic plants is reminiscent of non-treated, unstressed controls. In contrast, wild type and vector control plants displayed hallmark features of stress, including pectin degradation upon subjection to salinity treatment. Interestingly, despite their diverse origins, transgenic plants expressing the anti-apoptotic genes assessed in this study displayed similar physiological and biochemical characteristics during salinity treatment thus providing further evidence that cell death pathways are conserved across broad evolutionary kingdoms. Our results reveal that anti-apoptotic genes facilitate maintenance of metabolic activity at the whole plant level to create favorable conditions for cellular survival. It is these conditions that are crucial and conducive to the plants ability to tolerate/adapt to extreme environments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transgenic rice expressing AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35 can reduce cell death under salinity stress. (A) Wild type (WT); (B) Vector-control (VC); (C)AtBAG4; (D)Hsp70; and (E)p35 root tips, (F) TUNEL-positive cells. WT, VC, AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35transgenic plants were subjected to 100 mM NaCl, TUNEL assay and propidium iodide counter-staining were carried out at 36 h after salinity stress. Nucleic acid in TUNEL positive cells are selectively stained and fluoresces green, indicating the presence of apoptotic-like bodies, whereas all nucleic acid is counter- stained with propidium iodide and fluoresces red. Magnifications as indicated.
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Figure 1: Transgenic rice expressing AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35 can reduce cell death under salinity stress. (A) Wild type (WT); (B) Vector-control (VC); (C)AtBAG4; (D)Hsp70; and (E)p35 root tips, (F) TUNEL-positive cells. WT, VC, AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35transgenic plants were subjected to 100 mM NaCl, TUNEL assay and propidium iodide counter-staining were carried out at 36 h after salinity stress. Nucleic acid in TUNEL positive cells are selectively stained and fluoresces green, indicating the presence of apoptotic-like bodies, whereas all nucleic acid is counter- stained with propidium iodide and fluoresces red. Magnifications as indicated.

Mentions: To examine whether expression of anti-apoptotic genes prevents salinity-induced PCD, TUNEL assays were conducted on root tips of rice plants expressing AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35 after 36 h exposure to 100 mM NaCl; WT and VC plants were also included as controls. The data show that there was no or very little cell death in transgenic rice plants expressing anti-apoptotic genes while noticeable cell death was observed in WT and VC plants (Figure 1). As expected, no cell death observed in the non-stressed WT, VC or transgenic controls (data not shown).


Development of salinity tolerance in rice by constitutive-overexpression of genes involved in the regulation of programmed cell death.

Hoang TM, Moghaddam L, Williams B, Khanna H, Dale J, Mundree SG - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Transgenic rice expressing AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35 can reduce cell death under salinity stress. (A) Wild type (WT); (B) Vector-control (VC); (C)AtBAG4; (D)Hsp70; and (E)p35 root tips, (F) TUNEL-positive cells. WT, VC, AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35transgenic plants were subjected to 100 mM NaCl, TUNEL assay and propidium iodide counter-staining were carried out at 36 h after salinity stress. Nucleic acid in TUNEL positive cells are selectively stained and fluoresces green, indicating the presence of apoptotic-like bodies, whereas all nucleic acid is counter- stained with propidium iodide and fluoresces red. Magnifications as indicated.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4378369&req=5

Figure 1: Transgenic rice expressing AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35 can reduce cell death under salinity stress. (A) Wild type (WT); (B) Vector-control (VC); (C)AtBAG4; (D)Hsp70; and (E)p35 root tips, (F) TUNEL-positive cells. WT, VC, AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35transgenic plants were subjected to 100 mM NaCl, TUNEL assay and propidium iodide counter-staining were carried out at 36 h after salinity stress. Nucleic acid in TUNEL positive cells are selectively stained and fluoresces green, indicating the presence of apoptotic-like bodies, whereas all nucleic acid is counter- stained with propidium iodide and fluoresces red. Magnifications as indicated.
Mentions: To examine whether expression of anti-apoptotic genes prevents salinity-induced PCD, TUNEL assays were conducted on root tips of rice plants expressing AtBAG4, Hsp70 and p35 after 36 h exposure to 100 mM NaCl; WT and VC plants were also included as controls. The data show that there was no or very little cell death in transgenic rice plants expressing anti-apoptotic genes while noticeable cell death was observed in WT and VC plants (Figure 1). As expected, no cell death observed in the non-stressed WT, VC or transgenic controls (data not shown).

Bottom Line: Physiological, biochemical and agronomical analyses of transgenic rice expressing each of the anti-apoptotic genes subjected to salinity treatment demonstrated traits associated with tolerant varieties including, improved photosynthesis, membrane integrity, ion and ROS maintenance systems, growth rate, and yield components.Our results reveal that anti-apoptotic genes facilitate maintenance of metabolic activity at the whole plant level to create favorable conditions for cellular survival.It is these conditions that are crucial and conducive to the plants ability to tolerate/adapt to extreme environments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities, Queensland University of Technology Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Environmental factors contribute to over 70% of crop yield losses worldwide. Of these drought and salinity are the most significant causes of crop yield reduction. Rice is an important staple crop that feeds more than half of the world's population. However among the agronomically important cereals rice is the most sensitive to salinity. In the present study we show that exogenous expression of anti-apoptotic genes from diverse origins, AtBAG4 (Arabidopsis), Hsp70 (Citrus tristeza virus) and p35 (Baculovirus), significantly improves salinity tolerance in rice at the whole plant level. Physiological, biochemical and agronomical analyses of transgenic rice expressing each of the anti-apoptotic genes subjected to salinity treatment demonstrated traits associated with tolerant varieties including, improved photosynthesis, membrane integrity, ion and ROS maintenance systems, growth rate, and yield components. Moreover, FTIR analysis showed that the chemical composition of salinity-treated transgenic plants is reminiscent of non-treated, unstressed controls. In contrast, wild type and vector control plants displayed hallmark features of stress, including pectin degradation upon subjection to salinity treatment. Interestingly, despite their diverse origins, transgenic plants expressing the anti-apoptotic genes assessed in this study displayed similar physiological and biochemical characteristics during salinity treatment thus providing further evidence that cell death pathways are conserved across broad evolutionary kingdoms. Our results reveal that anti-apoptotic genes facilitate maintenance of metabolic activity at the whole plant level to create favorable conditions for cellular survival. It is these conditions that are crucial and conducive to the plants ability to tolerate/adapt to extreme environments.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus