Limits...
A review of cellularization strategies for tissue engineering of whole organs.

Scarritt ME, Pashos NC, Bunnell BA - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: With the advent of whole organ decellularization, extracellular matrix scaffolds suitable for organ engineering were generated from numerous tissues, including the heart, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas, for use as alternatives to traditional organ transplantation.Biomedical researchers now face the challenge of adequately and efficiently recellularizing these organ scaffolds.The cell types, delivery methods, and bioreactors employed for recellularization are discussed along with commercial and clinical considerations, such as immunogenicity, biocompatibility, and Food and Drug Administartion regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine , New Orleans, LA , USA.

ABSTRACT
With the advent of whole organ decellularization, extracellular matrix scaffolds suitable for organ engineering were generated from numerous tissues, including the heart, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas, for use as alternatives to traditional organ transplantation. Biomedical researchers now face the challenge of adequately and efficiently recellularizing these organ scaffolds. Herein, an overview of whole organ decellularization and a thorough review of the current literature for whole organ recellularization are presented. The cell types, delivery methods, and bioreactors employed for recellularization are discussed along with commercial and clinical considerations, such as immunogenicity, biocompatibility, and Food and Drug Administartion regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cell types used for organ scaffold recellularization. The cells listed above have been reportedly used for recellularization of the specified organ. Abbreviations: embryonic stem cells (ESCs); bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs); adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs); mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); small airway epithelial cells (SAECs); pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (PAECs); microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs); alveolar epithelial type II cells (AETII).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4378188&req=5

Figure 1: Cell types used for organ scaffold recellularization. The cells listed above have been reportedly used for recellularization of the specified organ. Abbreviations: embryonic stem cells (ESCs); bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs); adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs); mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); small airway epithelial cells (SAECs); pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (PAECs); microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs); alveolar epithelial type II cells (AETII).

Mentions: As can be seen in Figure 1, many different cell types have been used for organ recellularization. A common theme in the organ bioengineering literature is the use of fetal cells derived from the organ of interest. In general, when these cells are seeded into scaffolds, they retain their phenotypic markers and often display functionality as well as relevant spatial or compartmental orientation (see Tables S1–S5 in Supplementary Material for more details). Indeed, rat lung scaffolds seeded with neonatal or fetal rat lung cells participated in gas exchange after implantation (Ott et al., 2010; Petersen et al., 2010). Neonatal renal cells showed similar success when seeded rat kidneys produce urine in vivo (Song et al., 2013). Multiple groups have used fetal hepatic cells for liver recellularization with promising outcomes including urea and albumin production (Baptista et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2011; Barakat et al., 2012; Sabetkish et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014). Fetal cells provide proof-of-concept but, nevertheless, are not viable cell types for clinically relevant organ engineering.


A review of cellularization strategies for tissue engineering of whole organs.

Scarritt ME, Pashos NC, Bunnell BA - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

Cell types used for organ scaffold recellularization. The cells listed above have been reportedly used for recellularization of the specified organ. Abbreviations: embryonic stem cells (ESCs); bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs); adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs); mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); small airway epithelial cells (SAECs); pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (PAECs); microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs); alveolar epithelial type II cells (AETII).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4378188&req=5

Figure 1: Cell types used for organ scaffold recellularization. The cells listed above have been reportedly used for recellularization of the specified organ. Abbreviations: embryonic stem cells (ESCs); bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs); adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs); mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); small airway epithelial cells (SAECs); pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (PAECs); microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs); alveolar epithelial type II cells (AETII).
Mentions: As can be seen in Figure 1, many different cell types have been used for organ recellularization. A common theme in the organ bioengineering literature is the use of fetal cells derived from the organ of interest. In general, when these cells are seeded into scaffolds, they retain their phenotypic markers and often display functionality as well as relevant spatial or compartmental orientation (see Tables S1–S5 in Supplementary Material for more details). Indeed, rat lung scaffolds seeded with neonatal or fetal rat lung cells participated in gas exchange after implantation (Ott et al., 2010; Petersen et al., 2010). Neonatal renal cells showed similar success when seeded rat kidneys produce urine in vivo (Song et al., 2013). Multiple groups have used fetal hepatic cells for liver recellularization with promising outcomes including urea and albumin production (Baptista et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2011; Barakat et al., 2012; Sabetkish et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014). Fetal cells provide proof-of-concept but, nevertheless, are not viable cell types for clinically relevant organ engineering.

Bottom Line: With the advent of whole organ decellularization, extracellular matrix scaffolds suitable for organ engineering were generated from numerous tissues, including the heart, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas, for use as alternatives to traditional organ transplantation.Biomedical researchers now face the challenge of adequately and efficiently recellularizing these organ scaffolds.The cell types, delivery methods, and bioreactors employed for recellularization are discussed along with commercial and clinical considerations, such as immunogenicity, biocompatibility, and Food and Drug Administartion regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine , New Orleans, LA , USA.

ABSTRACT
With the advent of whole organ decellularization, extracellular matrix scaffolds suitable for organ engineering were generated from numerous tissues, including the heart, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas, for use as alternatives to traditional organ transplantation. Biomedical researchers now face the challenge of adequately and efficiently recellularizing these organ scaffolds. Herein, an overview of whole organ decellularization and a thorough review of the current literature for whole organ recellularization are presented. The cell types, delivery methods, and bioreactors employed for recellularization are discussed along with commercial and clinical considerations, such as immunogenicity, biocompatibility, and Food and Drug Administartion regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus