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Biotransfer of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in a eutrophicated freshwater lake.

Lage S, Annadotter H, Rasmussen U, Rydberg S - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: In the Baltic Sea, BMAA has been detected in several commercial fish species, raising the question of the bioaccumulation of BMAA in Swedish limnic systems.For the first time, a large number of fish individuals were used in order to draw conclusions on BMAA bioaccumulation in a closed ecological community based on a statistical approach.We may, therefore, conclude that feeding patterns (plankti-benthivorous) and increased age of fish may lead to a higher tissue concentration of BMAA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10654 Stockholm, Sweden. sandra.lage@su.se.

ABSTRACT
β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, plays a significant role as an environmental risk factor in neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMAA producers occur globally, colonizing almost all habitats and represent species from distinct phytoplanktonic groups, i.e., cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates. Bioaccumulation of BMAA in invertebrate and vertebrate organisms has also been registered around the globe. In the Baltic Sea, BMAA has been detected in several commercial fish species, raising the question of the bioaccumulation of BMAA in Swedish limnic systems. Here we find the presence of BMAA in water samples from Lake Finjasjön and identify its bioaccumulation patterns in both plankti-benthivorous and piscivorous fish, according to fish species, total weight, gender, and season of collection. For the first time, a large number of fish individuals were used in order to draw conclusions on BMAA bioaccumulation in a closed ecological community based on a statistical approach. We may, therefore, conclude that feeding patterns (plankti-benthivorous) and increased age of fish may lead to a higher tissue concentration of BMAA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BMAA standard curves of (a) Spirulina powder, (b) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) brain and (c) muscle tissue; with six concentration points (0.8, 2, 7, 13, 27 and 100 ng·mL−1) prepared in triplicate over 2.5 mg of protein from each matrix.
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marinedrugs-13-01185-f002: BMAA standard curves of (a) Spirulina powder, (b) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) brain and (c) muscle tissue; with six concentration points (0.8, 2, 7, 13, 27 and 100 ng·mL−1) prepared in triplicate over 2.5 mg of protein from each matrix.

Mentions: The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined based on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the chromatographic peaks [33]. The LOD was calculated for the diagnostic product ion of BMAA (i.e., m/z 459.1 > 258.09) and the LOQ for the general BMAA product ion (i.e., m/z 459.1 > 119.08). The LOD was established when the S/N was higher than 3.0 for the diagnostic product ion of BMAA (i.e., m/z 459.1 > 258.09). For the general BMAA product ion (i.e., m/z 459.1 > 119.08), the BMAA peak displayed an S/N between 10 and 30, so the LOQ was described as equal to the LOD. For Spirulina, both LOD and LOQ were 0.8 ng·mL−1 and the calibration curve had an r2 = 0.99 (Figure 2a). In the fish samples (in both brain and muscle tissues), both LOD and LOQ were also 0.8 ng∙mL−1. The regression lines revealed an r2 of 0.98 for the brain tissue and 0.99 for the muscle tissue (Figure 2b,c). BMAA was only considered to be present in a sample when a peak had an S/N value higher than 4.0, was observed in both product ions, the BMAA retention time at m/z 459.1 > 119.08 and m/z 459.1 > 258.09 chromatograms was 2.85 ± 0.12 min and the ratio between the ions m/z 459.1 > 119.08 and m/z 459.1 > 258.09 were 5.5 ± 1.0. Retention time and ions ratio was matrix dependent. Although all BMAA quantifications were performed in the second elute of the solid-phase extraction purified sample, occasionally BMAA peaks were also detected in the first elute.


Biotransfer of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in a eutrophicated freshwater lake.

Lage S, Annadotter H, Rasmussen U, Rydberg S - Mar Drugs (2015)

BMAA standard curves of (a) Spirulina powder, (b) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) brain and (c) muscle tissue; with six concentration points (0.8, 2, 7, 13, 27 and 100 ng·mL−1) prepared in triplicate over 2.5 mg of protein from each matrix.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4377979&req=5

marinedrugs-13-01185-f002: BMAA standard curves of (a) Spirulina powder, (b) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) brain and (c) muscle tissue; with six concentration points (0.8, 2, 7, 13, 27 and 100 ng·mL−1) prepared in triplicate over 2.5 mg of protein from each matrix.
Mentions: The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined based on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the chromatographic peaks [33]. The LOD was calculated for the diagnostic product ion of BMAA (i.e., m/z 459.1 > 258.09) and the LOQ for the general BMAA product ion (i.e., m/z 459.1 > 119.08). The LOD was established when the S/N was higher than 3.0 for the diagnostic product ion of BMAA (i.e., m/z 459.1 > 258.09). For the general BMAA product ion (i.e., m/z 459.1 > 119.08), the BMAA peak displayed an S/N between 10 and 30, so the LOQ was described as equal to the LOD. For Spirulina, both LOD and LOQ were 0.8 ng·mL−1 and the calibration curve had an r2 = 0.99 (Figure 2a). In the fish samples (in both brain and muscle tissues), both LOD and LOQ were also 0.8 ng∙mL−1. The regression lines revealed an r2 of 0.98 for the brain tissue and 0.99 for the muscle tissue (Figure 2b,c). BMAA was only considered to be present in a sample when a peak had an S/N value higher than 4.0, was observed in both product ions, the BMAA retention time at m/z 459.1 > 119.08 and m/z 459.1 > 258.09 chromatograms was 2.85 ± 0.12 min and the ratio between the ions m/z 459.1 > 119.08 and m/z 459.1 > 258.09 were 5.5 ± 1.0. Retention time and ions ratio was matrix dependent. Although all BMAA quantifications were performed in the second elute of the solid-phase extraction purified sample, occasionally BMAA peaks were also detected in the first elute.

Bottom Line: In the Baltic Sea, BMAA has been detected in several commercial fish species, raising the question of the bioaccumulation of BMAA in Swedish limnic systems.For the first time, a large number of fish individuals were used in order to draw conclusions on BMAA bioaccumulation in a closed ecological community based on a statistical approach.We may, therefore, conclude that feeding patterns (plankti-benthivorous) and increased age of fish may lead to a higher tissue concentration of BMAA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10654 Stockholm, Sweden. sandra.lage@su.se.

ABSTRACT
β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, plays a significant role as an environmental risk factor in neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMAA producers occur globally, colonizing almost all habitats and represent species from distinct phytoplanktonic groups, i.e., cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates. Bioaccumulation of BMAA in invertebrate and vertebrate organisms has also been registered around the globe. In the Baltic Sea, BMAA has been detected in several commercial fish species, raising the question of the bioaccumulation of BMAA in Swedish limnic systems. Here we find the presence of BMAA in water samples from Lake Finjasjön and identify its bioaccumulation patterns in both plankti-benthivorous and piscivorous fish, according to fish species, total weight, gender, and season of collection. For the first time, a large number of fish individuals were used in order to draw conclusions on BMAA bioaccumulation in a closed ecological community based on a statistical approach. We may, therefore, conclude that feeding patterns (plankti-benthivorous) and increased age of fish may lead to a higher tissue concentration of BMAA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus