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Spatial distribution of lead in Sacramento, California, USA.

Solt MJ, Deocampo DM, Norris M - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Analysis of the metals data revealed non-normal distributions and positive skewness, consistent with anthropogenic input.In addition, high correlation coefficients (≥0.75) of metal concentrations in Cd-Pb, Cd-Zn, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Sn pairs suggest similarities in the input mechanisms.Semivariograms generated from Pb and associated metals reveal these metals to exhibit spatial correlation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geology, California State University Sacramento, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA. mjsolt100@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Chronic exposure to lead remains a health concern in many urban areas; Sacramento, California is one example, with state surveillance data showing nearly 3% of screened children reported with blood lead levels over 4.5 μg/dL in 2009. To investigate the environmental exposure, 91 soil samples were collected and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS for 14 elements. An additional 28 samples were collected from areas of focus and analyzed by hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for Pb and Zn. Analysis of the metals data revealed non-normal distributions and positive skewness, consistent with anthropogenic input. In addition, high correlation coefficients (≥0.75) of metal concentrations in Cd-Pb, Cd-Zn, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Sn pairs suggest similarities in the input mechanisms. Semivariograms generated from Pb and associated metals reveal these metals to exhibit spatial correlation. A prediction map of lead concentrations in soil was generated by ordinary kriging, showing elevated concentrations in soil located in the central, older area of Sacramento where historic traffic density and industrial activity have been historically concentrated. XRF analysis of Pb and Zn from additional samples verifies elevated concentrations in the central areas of Sacramento as predicted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prediction map of interpolated Pb concentrations in soil (filled contours) kriged using observed Pb concentrations in ssoil (red, yellow, orange, and green circles). Greater concentrations are observed and predicted in the older, downtown area of Sacramento. White line indicates the 80 ppm contour, which the revised CalEPA soil guideline.
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ijerph-12-03174-f003: Prediction map of interpolated Pb concentrations in soil (filled contours) kriged using observed Pb concentrations in ssoil (red, yellow, orange, and green circles). Greater concentrations are observed and predicted in the older, downtown area of Sacramento. White line indicates the 80 ppm contour, which the revised CalEPA soil guideline.

Mentions: The prediction map for Pb exhibits elevated concentrations near the central, downtown areas of Sacramento southeast of the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers (Figure 3). The greatest concentrations predicted by ordinary kriging occur in the central older areas of Sacramento. This pattern is consistent with elevated metal concentrations in urban soils that are associated with anthropogenic sources, and similar maps for the other metals reflect the correlations evident in Table 3 [12]. Several studies have demonstrated lead contamination in urban areas is a function of traffic density and age of the urban area [1,2,29,30]. Wang et al. [31], used principal component analysis to link elevated Pb and Zn concentrations, which were attributed to vehicle traffic. Diawara et al., [23], used kriging to map predicted concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils from Pueblo (CO, USA). Although Diawara’s analysis revealed varied spatial distribution among the metals, lead contamination was focused around industrial smelting operations. It is important to note that a substantial portion of Sacramento lies within the 80 mg/kg contour (Figure 3), which signifies the newly revised maximum guideline from CalEPA [32].


Spatial distribution of lead in Sacramento, California, USA.

Solt MJ, Deocampo DM, Norris M - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Prediction map of interpolated Pb concentrations in soil (filled contours) kriged using observed Pb concentrations in ssoil (red, yellow, orange, and green circles). Greater concentrations are observed and predicted in the older, downtown area of Sacramento. White line indicates the 80 ppm contour, which the revised CalEPA soil guideline.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4377958&req=5

ijerph-12-03174-f003: Prediction map of interpolated Pb concentrations in soil (filled contours) kriged using observed Pb concentrations in ssoil (red, yellow, orange, and green circles). Greater concentrations are observed and predicted in the older, downtown area of Sacramento. White line indicates the 80 ppm contour, which the revised CalEPA soil guideline.
Mentions: The prediction map for Pb exhibits elevated concentrations near the central, downtown areas of Sacramento southeast of the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers (Figure 3). The greatest concentrations predicted by ordinary kriging occur in the central older areas of Sacramento. This pattern is consistent with elevated metal concentrations in urban soils that are associated with anthropogenic sources, and similar maps for the other metals reflect the correlations evident in Table 3 [12]. Several studies have demonstrated lead contamination in urban areas is a function of traffic density and age of the urban area [1,2,29,30]. Wang et al. [31], used principal component analysis to link elevated Pb and Zn concentrations, which were attributed to vehicle traffic. Diawara et al., [23], used kriging to map predicted concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils from Pueblo (CO, USA). Although Diawara’s analysis revealed varied spatial distribution among the metals, lead contamination was focused around industrial smelting operations. It is important to note that a substantial portion of Sacramento lies within the 80 mg/kg contour (Figure 3), which signifies the newly revised maximum guideline from CalEPA [32].

Bottom Line: Analysis of the metals data revealed non-normal distributions and positive skewness, consistent with anthropogenic input.In addition, high correlation coefficients (≥0.75) of metal concentrations in Cd-Pb, Cd-Zn, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Sn pairs suggest similarities in the input mechanisms.Semivariograms generated from Pb and associated metals reveal these metals to exhibit spatial correlation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geology, California State University Sacramento, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA. mjsolt100@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Chronic exposure to lead remains a health concern in many urban areas; Sacramento, California is one example, with state surveillance data showing nearly 3% of screened children reported with blood lead levels over 4.5 μg/dL in 2009. To investigate the environmental exposure, 91 soil samples were collected and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS for 14 elements. An additional 28 samples were collected from areas of focus and analyzed by hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for Pb and Zn. Analysis of the metals data revealed non-normal distributions and positive skewness, consistent with anthropogenic input. In addition, high correlation coefficients (≥0.75) of metal concentrations in Cd-Pb, Cd-Zn, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Sn pairs suggest similarities in the input mechanisms. Semivariograms generated from Pb and associated metals reveal these metals to exhibit spatial correlation. A prediction map of lead concentrations in soil was generated by ordinary kriging, showing elevated concentrations in soil located in the central, older area of Sacramento where historic traffic density and industrial activity have been historically concentrated. XRF analysis of Pb and Zn from additional samples verifies elevated concentrations in the central areas of Sacramento as predicted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus