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Pit latrine emptying behavior and demand for sanitation services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

Jenkins MW, Cumming O, Cairncross S - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines.Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'.Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA. mwjenkins@ucdavis.edu.

ABSTRACT
Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Positive perceptions shaping preference for latrine emptying method vs. reasons for choosing the method used last time in unplanned areas of Dar Es Salaam (2008).
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ijerph-12-02588-f001: Positive perceptions shaping preference for latrine emptying method vs. reasons for choosing the method used last time in unplanned areas of Dar Es Salaam (2008).

Mentions: Positive and negative perceptions of existing emptying methods and the reasons for choosing the method used last time are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Two attributes dominated method preference: “sludge taken away” and “removes all the sludge”. These however, were different from the factors that determined choice of method to ultimately use when need arose, namely, affordability, and “no money to pay someone” (Figure 1). Beyond affordability and lack of cash, easy availability and ability to remove all the sludge appear to be important characteristics influencing choice of method according to what users liked most about the method they chose (Figure 1). Negative perceptions of unhygienic methods (Figure 2) included contamination of the environment (32% of users), bad odors (26%), and that the sludge remained on site (19%). Hygienic methods were mainly perceived negatively for their high cost (38%), although they were also sometimes negatively viewed for causing bad odors (21% of users) and disturbing the neighbors (8%). Tanker service was more negatively perceived than Vacutug, both for high cost (45% vs. 10%) and bad odors (24% vs. 10%).


Pit latrine emptying behavior and demand for sanitation services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

Jenkins MW, Cumming O, Cairncross S - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Positive perceptions shaping preference for latrine emptying method vs. reasons for choosing the method used last time in unplanned areas of Dar Es Salaam (2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4377920&req=5

ijerph-12-02588-f001: Positive perceptions shaping preference for latrine emptying method vs. reasons for choosing the method used last time in unplanned areas of Dar Es Salaam (2008).
Mentions: Positive and negative perceptions of existing emptying methods and the reasons for choosing the method used last time are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Two attributes dominated method preference: “sludge taken away” and “removes all the sludge”. These however, were different from the factors that determined choice of method to ultimately use when need arose, namely, affordability, and “no money to pay someone” (Figure 1). Beyond affordability and lack of cash, easy availability and ability to remove all the sludge appear to be important characteristics influencing choice of method according to what users liked most about the method they chose (Figure 1). Negative perceptions of unhygienic methods (Figure 2) included contamination of the environment (32% of users), bad odors (26%), and that the sludge remained on site (19%). Hygienic methods were mainly perceived negatively for their high cost (38%), although they were also sometimes negatively viewed for causing bad odors (21% of users) and disturbing the neighbors (8%). Tanker service was more negatively perceived than Vacutug, both for high cost (45% vs. 10%) and bad odors (24% vs. 10%).

Bottom Line: We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines.Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'.Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA. mwjenkins@ucdavis.edu.

ABSTRACT
Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus