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Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

Yoon YI, Chung MY, Hwang JS, Han MS, Goo TW, Yun EY - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA).Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner.Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Wanju-gun 565-851, Korea. ruru012012@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

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Histology of epididymal adipose (A) and liver (C) tissues of mice fed experimental diets for six weeks (magnification= ×200). Normal-fat diet (NFD), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet with 100 mg·kg−1·day−1Allomirina dichotoma larva suspension (HFD + ADL 100), and HFD with 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL (HFD + ADL 3000). Epididymal adipose cell volume measured by IMT i-Solution Lite program (B). Histopathology of the liver with steatosis. Arrows indicate the macrovesicular lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes (C). Results are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3). Statistical significance was evaluated by Duncan post-hoc test in ANOVA. p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, compared to the high-fat diet group.
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nutrients-07-01978-f001: Histology of epididymal adipose (A) and liver (C) tissues of mice fed experimental diets for six weeks (magnification= ×200). Normal-fat diet (NFD), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet with 100 mg·kg−1·day−1Allomirina dichotoma larva suspension (HFD + ADL 100), and HFD with 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL (HFD + ADL 3000). Epididymal adipose cell volume measured by IMT i-Solution Lite program (B). Histopathology of the liver with steatosis. Arrows indicate the macrovesicular lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes (C). Results are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3). Statistical significance was evaluated by Duncan post-hoc test in ANOVA. p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, compared to the high-fat diet group.

Mentions: Accordingly, we investigated effects of ADL on adipocyte size. Our results show that adipocytes from epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed HFD are significantly reduced in size by oral administration of ADL, and that this effect is dose-dependent (Figure 1A,B). Mean adipocyte volumes in HFD, HFD + ADL (3000 mg·kg−1·day−1) and HFD + MT mice were 5760 μm3, 4115 μm3 and 4600 μm3, respectively. In addition, fat accumulation and cell size in liver tissue were reduced in groups receiving HFD + ADL compared to the HFD group (Figure 1C). Macrovesicular steatosis is the most common form related with alcohol, diabetes, obesity and corticosteroids [31,32]. Macrovesicular steatosis increased in liver of the HFD group was decreased by oral administration of ADL (3000 mg·kg−1·day−1) (Figure 1C).


Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

Yoon YI, Chung MY, Hwang JS, Han MS, Goo TW, Yun EY - Nutrients (2015)

Histology of epididymal adipose (A) and liver (C) tissues of mice fed experimental diets for six weeks (magnification= ×200). Normal-fat diet (NFD), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet with 100 mg·kg−1·day−1Allomirina dichotoma larva suspension (HFD + ADL 100), and HFD with 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL (HFD + ADL 3000). Epididymal adipose cell volume measured by IMT i-Solution Lite program (B). Histopathology of the liver with steatosis. Arrows indicate the macrovesicular lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes (C). Results are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3). Statistical significance was evaluated by Duncan post-hoc test in ANOVA. p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, compared to the high-fat diet group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4377894&req=5

nutrients-07-01978-f001: Histology of epididymal adipose (A) and liver (C) tissues of mice fed experimental diets for six weeks (magnification= ×200). Normal-fat diet (NFD), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet with 100 mg·kg−1·day−1Allomirina dichotoma larva suspension (HFD + ADL 100), and HFD with 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL (HFD + ADL 3000). Epididymal adipose cell volume measured by IMT i-Solution Lite program (B). Histopathology of the liver with steatosis. Arrows indicate the macrovesicular lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes (C). Results are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3). Statistical significance was evaluated by Duncan post-hoc test in ANOVA. p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, compared to the high-fat diet group.
Mentions: Accordingly, we investigated effects of ADL on adipocyte size. Our results show that adipocytes from epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed HFD are significantly reduced in size by oral administration of ADL, and that this effect is dose-dependent (Figure 1A,B). Mean adipocyte volumes in HFD, HFD + ADL (3000 mg·kg−1·day−1) and HFD + MT mice were 5760 μm3, 4115 μm3 and 4600 μm3, respectively. In addition, fat accumulation and cell size in liver tissue were reduced in groups receiving HFD + ADL compared to the HFD group (Figure 1C). Macrovesicular steatosis is the most common form related with alcohol, diabetes, obesity and corticosteroids [31,32]. Macrovesicular steatosis increased in liver of the HFD group was decreased by oral administration of ADL (3000 mg·kg−1·day−1) (Figure 1C).

Bottom Line: To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA).Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner.Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Wanju-gun 565-851, Korea. ruru012012@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus